The preactivated cyclophosphamide analogue, 4-HC, does not require activation by hepatic microsomal enzymes to express its cytotoxic activity and therefore, unlike cyclophosphamide, may be useful for the regional therapy of cancer. In the present study, the pharmacokinetics and toxicology of 4-HC were studied following intraventricular administration of 0.4 mg to rhesus monkeys with chronic indwelling Ommaya reservoirs. 4-HC was measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma with a high-performance liquid chromatography assay utilizing a fluorometric detector following derivatization with m-aminophenol. The mean peak level of 4-HC in ventricular CSF was 100 µm 5 min after administration. The drug was cleared rapidly and the elimination was monoexponential with a mean half-life of 22 min. The mean clearance from CSF (0.33 ml/min) was 10-fold higher than CSF bulk flow. The drug was distributed throughout the subarachnoid space with lumbar levels approaching ventricular levels by 60 min. Neither acute nor chronic neurotoxicity or systemic toxicity was observed during the 6-wk observation period.
Concentrations of 4-HC demonstrated to be cytocidal in vitro against human breast cancer, lymphoid leukemia, and rhabdomyosarcoma were readily achieved in CSF following intraventricular administration. This study demonstrates that intraventricular therapy with 4-HC is feasible and suggests that further study of this approach in the clinical setting should be considered.
↵1 To whom reprint requests should be addressed, at Pediatric Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bldg. 10, Rm. 13N240, Bethesda, MD 20892.
- Received May 4, 1987.
- Revision received August 7, 1987.
- Accepted August 17, 1987.
- ©1987 American Association for Cancer Research.