Increased ploidy is an ominous event in the progression of human malignancies. It is usually associated with an increased growth rate of the neoplastic cells and a generally more autonomous and aggressive biological behavior. However, it has not been established whether the more rapid growth rate and growth factor independence are consequences of the polyploid, karyotypically increasingly aberrant nature of these cells or whether the accelerated, more autonomous growth contributes to polyploidization. In this study, we have examined a recently described (H. J. Wajchman et al., Exp. Cell Res., 224: 312–322, 1996) series of sublines of HL60 cells with increasing resistance to the monocytic differentiationinducing steroid hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) and found that growth factor independence, shown by reduced requirement for serum supplementation of the medium and the ability to grow at low seeding densities, precedes polyploidization of these cultures. The growth factor independence was found to be accompanied by constitutive changes in the DNA binding pattern of the ubiquitous transcription factor Sp1, characteristic of an exposure to 1,25D3. Similar changes in the pattern of AP-1 binding were also observed in the 1,25D3-resistant HL60 sublines, but the intensity of the DNA binding by AP-1 was increased only in sublines with resistance to 1,25D3 but still near-diploid. The data suggest that the culture of HL60 cells in the presence of 1,25D3 results in constitutive up-regulation of growth-related machinery that reduces the need for growth factors and cytokines and demonstrate that this increased growth potential precedes polyploidization of the culture populations.
↵1 Supported by Grant RO1-CA-44722 from the National Cancer Institute.
↵2 To whom requests for reprints should be addressed, at Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, UMD-N.J. Medical School, 185 South Orange Avenue, Newark, NJ 07103. Fax: (201) 982-7293.
- Received June 21, 1996.
- Accepted September 30, 1996.
- ©1996 American Association for Cancer Research.