The Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis of the Chinese Ministry of Health and The Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion of the Chinese Ministry of Education, Cancer Research Institute, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.
The interplay between immune checkpoint proteins and cellular metabolism. A, Immune checkpoint proteins can affect cellular metabolism and immune cell activation by (i) receptor/ligand ligation on cancer cells and immune cells, (ii) nutrients’ competition, and (iii) cancer cell–produced metabolites. B, Impact of immune checkpoint proteins on glycolytic signaling pathway. These signaling processes can suppress the immune cells, leading to escaping immune surveillance, and consequently promote cancer progression.