Reovirus is a nonattenuated double-stranded RNA virus that exploits aberrant signaling pathways allowing selective cytotoxicity against multiple cancer histologies. The use of reovirus as a potential treatment modality for prostate cancer has not previously been described, and in this study evidence of in vitro and in vivo activity against prostate cancer was seen both in preclinical models and in six patients. The human prostate carcinoma cell lines PC-3, LN-CaP, and DU-145 exposed to replication-competent reovirus showed evidence of infection as illustrated by viral protein synthesis, cytopathic effect, and release of viral progeny. This oncolytic effect was found to be manifested through apoptosis, as DNA fragmentation, Apo 2.7 expression, Annexin V binding, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage were observed in live reovirus-infected cells, but not in uninfected or dead virus–treated cells. In vivo, hind flank severe combined immunodeficient/nonobese diabetic murine xenograft showed reduction in tumor size when treated with even a single intratumoral injection of reovirus. Finally, intralesional reovirus injections into a cohort of six patients with clinically organ-confined prostate cancer resulted in minimal side effects and evidence of antitumor activity. Histologic analysis after prostatectomy found a significant CD8 T-cell infiltration within the reovirus-injected areas as well as evidence of increased caspase-3 activity. These findings suggest that reovirus therapy may provide a promising novel treatment for prostate cancer and also imply a possible role for viral immune targeting of tumor. Cancer Res; 70(6); 2435–44
- oncolytic virus
- prostate cancer
- clinical trial
Note: Primary authorship is shared by C.M. Thirukkumaran, M.J. Nodwell, and K. Hirasawa.
- Received July 7, 2009.
- Revision received December 13, 2009.
- Accepted January 11, 2010.
- ©2010 American Association for Cancer Research.