%0 Journal Article
%A Grisham, Joe W.
%A Smith, Gary J.
%A Lee, Lester W.
%A Bentley, Karin S.
%A Fatteh, Mohammed V.
%T Induction of Foci of Morphologically Transformed Cells in Synchronized Populations of 10T½ Cells by *N*-Methyl-*N′*-nitro-*N*-nitrosoguanidine and the Effect of Spontaneous Transformation on Calculated Transformation Frequency
%D 1988
%J Cancer Research
%P 5977-5983
%V 48
%N 21
%X Exposure of synchronized C3H10T½ (clone 8) cell populations of various sizes to N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) at a concentration of 2 µg/ml for 30 min at 24 h after release from confluenceinduced arrest of proliferation produced neoplastic transformation (formation of foci of morphologically altered cells) by a random but episodic process in a small fraction of the cells at risk soon after treatment. The fraction of dishes that contained type II or type III foci increased as the number of cells at risk increased. In contrast, the development of spontaneous foci is a stochastic process that depends on the number of new cells that form during population growth and is independent of the number of cells that are plated (J. W. Grisham et al., Cancer Res., 48: 5969–5976, 1988). When there were small numbers of cells at risk, spontaneous formation of foci was a source of considerable error in evaluating MNNG-induced transformation frequency. In surviving cell populations of less than 1000–3000 cells/100-mm dish, the frequency of induction of foci by MNNG could not be distinguished statistically from the frequency with which foci were expected to form spontaneously. When the fraction of MNNG-treated dishes that contained foci was adjusted for the fraction of pooled control dishes that contained foci, the number of foci induced by a uniform dose of MNNG was found to vary with the number of surviving cells. However, the MNNG-induced transformation frequencies calculated by the Poisson method were independent of the size of the population of cells at risk, provided the population of cells at risk was of sufficient size to allow spontaneous and induced transformation to be distinguished statistically. The results of this study show that the frequency of MNNG-induced transformation can be quantitated in cultures of 10T½ cells that contain varying but sufficient numbers of cells at risk when spontaneous transformation is considered. Furthermore, these observations suggest that MNNG-induced transformation of 10T½ cells occurs with the frequency and characteristics of a mutation-like change involving a single gene. ©1988 American Association for Cancer Research.%U http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/48/21/5977.full.pdf