Table 2

OR for different skin diseases and nonmelanoma skin cancer associated with HPV and adjusted for other risk factors with normal skin as controls

No. (%) patientsNo. (%) controlsCrude OR (95% CI)PAdjusted ORa (95% CI)P
Wart209 (66.3)106 (33.7)
 HPV negative19 (9.1)101 (95.3)ReferenceReference
 HPV positive190 (90.9)5 (4.7)202 (73–557)<0.0001210 (61–729)<0.0001
  HPV high-risk mucosalb positive3 (1.6)1 (20.0)16 (1.6–162)0.01913 (1.2–149)0.036
  HPV Evc positive2 (1.1)1 (20.0)10.6 (0.9–123)0.05937 (2.5–550)0.008
Solar keratosis and Bowen’s disease91 (46.2)106 (53.8)
 HPV negative36 (39.6)101 (95.3)ReferenceReference
 HPV positive55 (60.4)5 (4.7)31 (11.5–83)<0.000126 (7.3–91)<0.0001
  HPV high-risk mucosalb positive10 (18.2)1 (20.0)28 (3.5–227)0.002 d
  HPV Evc positive6 (10.9)1 (20.0)16.8 (2.0–145)0.0109.2 (1.0–80)0.046
SCC and BCC90 (45.9)106 (54.1)
 HPV negative42 (46.7)101 (95.3)ReferenceReference
 HPV positive48 (53.3)5 (4.7)23 (8.6–62)<0.000121 (7.2–63)<0.0001
  HPV high-risk mucosalb positive12 (25.0)1 (20.0)29 (3.6–229)0.00259 (5.4–645)0.001
  HPV Evc positive4 (8.3)1 (20.0)9.6 (1.0–89)0.0466.4 (0.6–65)0.118
SCC72 (40.4)106 (59.6)
 HPV negative29 (40.3)101 (95.3)ReferenceReference
 HPV positive43 (59.7)5 (4.7)30 (10.9–83)<0.000132 (10–100)<0.0001
  HPV high-risk mucosalb positive9 (20.9)1 (20.0)31 (3.8–258)0.001 f
  HPV Evc positive4 (9.3)1 (20.0)13.9 (1.5–130)0.0209.6 (0.9–100)0.058
BCC18 (14.5)106 (85.5)
 HPV negative13 (72.2)101 (95.3)ReferenceReference
 HPV positive5 (27.8)5 (4.7)7.8 (2.0–30)0.0037.3 (1.7–30)0.006
  HPV high-risk mucosalb positive3 (23.1)1 (20.0)23.3 (2.3–241)0.00826 (2.1–318)0.011
  HPV Evc positive01 (20.0) e e
  • a OR adjusted for age, sex, and sun exposure (sun exposed: head, face, neck, forearm, hands, and lower limb).

  • b HPV high-risk mucosal types: 16, 31, 33, 35, and 51.

  • c HPV Ev types: 5, 8, 12, 17, 19, 22, and 36.

  • d All cases are 50 years ≥, no control age ≥50 years is HPV mucosal positive.

  • e No BCC case is HPV Ev positive.

  • f No control age ≥50 years is HPV mucosal positive.