Table 1

Inhibition of COX-2 enhanced 4-HPR-induced apoptosis in HER2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells

MCF-7/HER2 cells
4-HPR (1 μm)aNS398b (5 μm)Trastuzumab (1.0 μm)% Apoptotic cellsc
2.3
+2.6
+1.9
+2.1
++1.7
++22.0
++23.7
+++19.4
SKBr-3 cells
4-HPR (1 μm)NS398b (5 μm)Trastuzumab (0.1 μm)% Apoptotic cellsc
2.4
+4.4
+5.1
+2.6
++5.7
++21.2
++25.7
+++28.7
MDA-MB-453 cells
4-HPR (1 μm)NS398b (5 μm)Trastuzumab (1.0 μm)% Apoptotic cellsc
2.9
+3.4
+3.2
+3.1
++3.2
++6.4
++6.9
+++6.1
  • a 4-HPR, N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide.

  • b Selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor.

  • c Percentage of apoptotic cells (i.e., cells in the sub-G1 peak) was evaluated by flow cytometric analysis of propidium iodide staining.