Table 4.

Current technology used in cancer surgery

Laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) surgery
Cryosurgery
Electrosurgery
Endoscopic surgery
    Laparoscope
    Thoracoscope
    Mediastinoscope
High-intensity focused ultrasound
Microwaves
Radiowaves (radiofrequency cytoablation)
Stereotactic radiation (from cobalt-60 source)
    Gamma Knife
    CyberKnife
Magnetic resonance imaging
Robotic surgery
    Smart scalpel
    AESOP (Automated Endoscopic System for Optimal Position)
    Da Vinci
    Zeus systems
    Socrates (surgical collaboration system linking remote surgeons directly with operating rooms)
    Hermes (operating room central nervous system)
    Navigator
    Nanorobots