Table 1.

Distribution of clinical and smoking characteristics among smokers and nonsmokers, separately for the discovery screen and validation screen

Discovery screenValidation screen
Nonsmokers (n = 13)Smokers (n = 11)Nonsmokers (n = 37)Smokers (n = 53)
Age, mean (SD)64.7 (12.1)65.5 (9.7)64.9 (11.3)65.2 (9.6)
Gender, n (%)
    Male6 (46.2)4 (36.4)22 (59.5)21 (39.6)
    Female7 (53.8)7 (63.6)15 (40.5)32 (60.4)
Race, n (%)
    White12 (92.3)9 (81.8)32 (86.5)47 (88.7)
    Other race1 (7.7)2 (18.2)5 (13.5)6 (11.3)
Surgery, n (%)
    Autopsy4 (30.8)3 (27.3)1 (2.7)0 (0.0)
    Whipple9 (69.2)6 (54.5)33 (89.2)43 (81.1)
    Distal pancreatectomy0 (0.0)2 (18.2)3 (8.1)10 (18.9)
Location of tumor, n (%)
    Head12 (92.3)7 (63.6)34 (94.4)43 (84.3)
    Tail1 (7.7)4 (36.4)2 (5.6)8 (15.7)
Grade*, n (%)
    Poor8 (61.5)7 (70)11 (29.7)22 (42.3)
    Moderate/well5 (38.5)3 (30)26 (70.3)30 (57.7)
Tumor size (cm), n (%)
    <33 (23.1)2 (18.2)13 (35.1)19 (35.8)
    3-56 (46.1)6 (54.5)20 (54.1)25 (47.2)
    >52 (15.4)2 (18.2)3 (8.1)8 (15.1)
    Unknown (autopsy cases)2 (15.4)1 (9.1)1 (2.7)1 (1.9)
Margin, n (%)
    Negative6 (46.2)5 (45.5)23 (62.2)37 (69.8)
    Positive4 (30.8)3 (27.3)13 (35.1)16 (30.2)
    Unknown (autopsy cases)3 (23.1)3 (27.3)1 (2.7)0 (0.0)
Diabetic, n (%)
    No9 (69.2)7 (63.6)7 (87.5)4 (50)
    Yes4 (30.8)4 (36.4)1 (12.5)4 (50)
No. positive lymph nodes, mean (SD)3 (1.7)6 (3.6)3 (4.6)3 (3)
No. lymph nodes, mean (SD)22 (12.9)18 (5.3)15 (8.2)15 (8.2)
Smoking status, n (%)
    Current5 (45.5)21 (39.6)
    Former6 (54.5)32 (60.4)
Years quit, n (%)
    ≤102 (33.3)10 (31.2)
    >104 (66.7)22 (68.8)
Pack-years, mean (SD)43 (23.3)38 (27.9)
  • NOTE: * Original grade not available on two autopsied patients.