Table 4.

Caffeine intake from different sources and the risk of BCC in the NHS (1984–2008) and the HPFS (1986–2008)

Women (NHS)Men (HPFS)
CharacteristicsMV-adjusted RR for 100 mg/dcPMV-adjusted RR for 100 mg/dcP
Caffeine from coffee (78.5%)a0.97 (0.97–0.98)<0.00010.99 (0.98–0.998)0.016
Caffeine from tea, cola, and chocolate (21.5%)b0.88 (0.75–1.04)0.130.93 (0.18–4.84)0.93
  • aCaffeine from coffee accounts for 78.5% of total caffeine intake in our study population.

  • bCaffeine from tea (18%), cola (3%), and chocolate (0.5%) accounts for 21.5% of total caffeine intake in our study population.

  • cMV-adjusted RR: multivariate-adjusted for BMI (3 groups), physical activity (quintiles), smoking status (never, past, current 1–14 cigarettes per day, 15+ cigarettes per day), childhood reaction to sun, severe sunburns, moles, hair color, family history of melanoma, sun exposures at different age intervals, UV index at birth, age 15, and age 30, and history of nonskin cancer.