Table 3.

Association between smoking status (never, current, former) and quartiles of a polygenic risk score with bladder cancer risk among white males in U.S. studiesa

CasesControlsORb (95% CI)
Smoking status
Never254464Ref.
Ever11308822.57 (2.03–3.15)
 Former8497042.23 (1.74–2.85)
 Current2641564.79 (3.43–6.70)
Polygenic risk score (12 SNPs)
 Score 0 (low risk)171325Ref.
 Score 13263431.87 (1.46–2.39)
 Score 23923462.22 (1.74–2.82)
 Score 3 (high risk)4953322.94 (2.32–3.73)
Smoking status association by polygenic risk score (12 SNPs)c
Ever vs NeverNeverEverNeverEver
 Score 0 (low risk)37134982271.77 (1.11–2.84)
 Score 1612651172262.50 (1.68–3.70)
 Score 2723201292172.82 (1.94–4.11)
 Score 3 (high risk)844111202123.11 (2.17–4.45)
Test for interactiond = 0.235
Former vs NeverNeverFormerNeverFormer
 Score 0 (low risk)3798981741.55 (0.95–2.53)
 Score 1611971171852.12 (1.40–3.19)
 Score 2722491291742.49 (1.69–3.68)
 Score 3 (high risk)843051201712.66 (1.83–3.87)
Test for interactiond = 0.272
Current vs NeverNeverCurrentNeverCurrent
 Score 0 (low risk)373498473.31 (1.74–6.27)
 Score 16166117355.29 (3.01–9.29)
 Score 27265129384.66 (2.69–8.08)
 Score 3 (high risk)8499120366.15 (3.64–10.42)
Test for interactiond = 0.373
  • aPolygenic risk score (PRS) calculated as quartiles of a linear predictor including 12 SNPs in Table 2. The PRS is defined only for subjects with complete data on all 12 SNPs.

  • bOR from logistic regression models adjusted for study, age, and gender.

  • cMedian (range) number of risk alleles for each genetic score (quartiles) in the control population is: 10 (5–14) for score 0; 12 (9–17) for score 1; 13 (11–16) for score 2; and 15 (13–20) for score 3 (the maximum number of risk alleles is 20 because rs11892031 and rs17863783 are considered as dichotomous variables due to the low frequency of the rare homozygous genotypes).

  • dLRT (3 df).