Table 2

Distribution of cases and controls in Nordic countries and Italy with respect to exposure levels for different occupational agents (see“ Subjects and Methods” for group definition)

Occupational agentsNonexposedaLow exposureIntermediate exposureHigh exposure
CasesControlsCasesControlsCasesControlsCasesControls
Group A
Anticancer agentsb
Nordic countries883470422310
Italy62243000101
Asbestosc
Nordic countries8032311332700
Italy57237371011
Benzenec
Nordic countries903452151300
Italy602300310112
Cadmiumc
Nordic countries92361120000
Italy59236141213
Chromium (VI)c
Nordic countries89349102717
Italy542328130000
Ethylene oxidec
Nordic countries91252011317
Italy62244000001
Ionizing radiationb
Nordic countries88355570100
Italy461601034216214
Nickelc
Nordic countries853381338414
Italy62245000000
PAHb
Nordic countries8833132021000
Italy592293100501
Rubber chemicalsb
Nordic countries8634515613
Italy612440011
Vinyl chloridec
Nordic countries873370200624
Italy62245000000
Group B
Other IARCI agentsd
Nordic countries8935645
Italy54208736
Group C
Aromatic hydrocarbonsc,e
Nordic countries762961243212310
Italy582291531100
Formaldehydec
Nordic countries8834527311
Italy622410400
Leadf
Nordic countries88352261114
Italy521920014949
MMMFb,g
Nordic countries87331632
Italy6224500
Organic solventsc,h
Nordic countries692621968110416
Italy56208212413012
Pesticidesb,i
Nordic countries93357010006
Italy62245000000
Propylene oxidec
Nordic countries91359002301
Italy62245000000
Styrenec
Nordic countries863313621927
Italy62245000000
Tanneryb
Nordic countries9336300
Italy6124411
Welding fumesb
Stainless steel
Nordic countries89350102617
Italy62245000000
  • a The number of subjects classified as nonexposed for all agents during the period was 32 cases and 134 controls for the Nordic countries and 16 cases and 37 controls for Italy. Four cases (3 from Italy) and 29 controls (22 from Italy) who were assigned uncertain exposure are not shown in the table.

  • b The cutoff limits were based on work activities.

  • c The cutoff limits were based on 8-h airborne time-weighted exposure levels.

  • d Classified as exposed versus nonexposed.

  • e Aromatic hydrocarbon solvents not including benzene or styrene.

  • f The cutoff limits were based on blood level.

  • g Man-made mineral fibers.

  • h Organic solvents not including aromatic hydrocarbons. The cutoff limits for different solvents were based on the percentage of threshold limit values.

  • i Fungicides, herbicides, or insecticides.