Table 1

Review of gene alterations in normal pancreatic ducts, (PanINs)a , and infiltrating pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas

Gene (reference no.)NormalPanIN-1APanIN-1BPanIN-2PanIN-3Infiltrating
HER-2/neu (12)5%82%86%92%100%69%
K-ras (9, 13–15, 18, 32, 33)0–15%b35%43% c 86%∼90%
p16 (9, 10, 34, 35)0%24%19%55%71%∼95%
p53 (11, 16, 36)0%0%0% d 21%∼75%
DPC4 (17, 19, this study)0%0%0%0%31%∼55%
BRCA2 (31, 37)e0%0%0%0% F 7%
  • a Histologic classification of PanINs is given in the text.

  • b Authors are not in agreement that normal ductal epithelium harbors K-ras mutations.

  • c Insufficient numbers of PanIN-2 were present in these studies to present an accurate result.

  • d One PanIN-2 identified by Hameed et al. (16) overexpressed p53, but the total number of PanINs-2 was not reported. Therefore, a percentage could not be calculated.

  • e BRCA2 data in PanINs are restricted to patients with germ-line BRCA2 inactivating mutations.

  • f Only one PanIN-3 was studied by Goggins et al., (31) and it showed a BRCA2 germ-line mutation coupled with loss of heterozygosity.