Table 2

Mutational characteristics of lung tumors

TypeKRAS codon 12 (%)aTP53 (%)b
No. of subjectsPositiveG → TNo. of mutationsG → TG → T on NTSC → T at CpGC → T at CpG on NTSCodons 153–158
Lung
 All smokers995238 (23.9)(65.7)c, d343101 (29.1)d85 (85)e39 (11.3)d17 (43.5)f32 (9.3)d
 All nonsmokers1228 (6.6) g 9210 (10.9)7 (70)20 (21.7)12 (60)8 (9.4)
 Smoky coal247 (29.2)6 (85.7)2116 (76.2)16 (100)2 (9.5)1 (50)7 (33.3)
 Asians (S and NS)h74792 (12.3)41 (44.6)513129 (25.1)111 (86)69 (13.4)37 (53.6)41 (8)
NTRi g g g 2941266 (9)198 (74.4)915 (31.1)423 (46.2)82 (2.8)
  • a Data other than smoky coal from Refs. 6 and 16 .

  • b Data other than smoky coal from IARC TP53 Mutation Database, DataR4 version (April 2000), available at http://www.iarc.fr/TP53. Data from cell lines, metastases, and individuals exposed to any carcinogen other than tobacco smoke were excluded. The studies by Gao et al. (21) and Fujimoto et al. (22) were also excluded.

  • c Based on 65 of 99 because the type of mutation (e.g., G → T) was not always stated in the literature.

  • d Percentage of all of the mutations.

  • e Percentage of G → T transversions on the NTS.

  • f Percentage of all of the C → T transitions at CpG sites.

  • g Insufficient data to permit a calculation.

  • h Asians from Taiwan, Japan, and Hong Kong; smokers and nonsmokers.

  • i NTR, non-tobacco-related tumors (breast, brain, colon).