Table 1

Comparison of parameters between patients with and without metastasis

ParameterMetastasis (n = 167)No metastasis (n = 214)P
Age (yr)64.1 ± 5.864.7 ± 6.20.17a
Gender
 Male (n = 304)1441600.0093b
 Female (n = 77)2354
Smoking
 Smokers (n = 244)1141300.111b
 Nonsmokers (n = 137)5384
Mitotic index (n/10 HPFc)5.2 ± 2.84.8 ± 2.50.105a
DDH expression
 Overexpression148 (46.7%)169 (53.3%)0.045b
 Low19 (29.7%)45 (70.3%)
Tumor type
 SCC861040.681b
 AD6084
 Mixed2126
Stage
 I1860<0.005b
 IIa040
 IIb2788
 IIIa025
 IIIb19
 IV05
Cell differentiation
 Well11310.052b
 Moderate115134
 Poor4149
Lymphovascular invasion
 Positive1041140.068b
 Negative63100
  • a Two-sided P determined by t test.

  • b Two-sided P determined by the χ2 test.

  • c HPF, high-power field; SCC, squamous cell carcinoma; AD, adenocarcinoma.