Table 1

Candidate normalization genes evaluated in this study

SymbolGene nameAccession no.aLocus linkFunctionLocationbPseudo-genescTissued
FLOT2 Flotillin 2NM_004475.12319May act as a scaffolding protein within caveolar membranes. May be involved in epidermal cell adhesion and epidermal structure and function.17q11.2NoB
ATP5B ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, β polypeptideNM_001686.1506Produces ATP from ADP in the presence of a proton gradient across the membrane. The β chain is the catalytic subunit.12q13.3YesB
HSPCB Heat shock 90-kDa protein 1, βENST000002654133326Molecular chaperone. Has ATPase activity (by similarity).6p21.1YesB
S100A6 S100 calcium-binding protein A6 (calcyclin)ENST000002921626277May function in stimulation of Ca2+-dependent insulin release, stimulation of prolactin secretion, and exocytosis.1q21.3YesB
TEGT Testis enhanced gene transcript (BAX inhibitor 1)ENST000002671157009Suppressor of apoptosis12q13.12NoB
CFL1 Cofilin 1 (non-muscle)ENST000003081621072Controls reversibly actin polymerization and depolymerization. It is the major component of intranuclear and cytoplasmic actin rods.11q13.1YesB and C
FLJ20030 Hypothetical protein FLJ20030ENST0000021832854789UnknownXp11.22NoB and C
TPT1 Tumor protein, translationally controlled 1ENST000002554777178Unknown13q14.13YesB and C
UBB e Ubiquitin BNM_018955.17314Protein degradation17p11.2YesB and C
UBC e Ubiquitin CENST000002805907316Protein degradation12q24.31YesB and C
RPS13 f Ribosomal protein S13NM_001017.26207Encodes a ribosomal protein that is a component of the 40S subunit11p15.1YesB and C
RPS23 f Ribosomal protein S23NM_001025.16228Encodes a ribosomal protein that is a component of the 40S subunit5q14.2YesB and C
GAPD Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenaseNM_0020462597Catalyzes the reversible oxidative phosphorylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate12p13.31YesB and C
ACTB Actin, βNM_001101.260Cytoskeletal structural protein involved in various types of cell motility7p22.1YesB and C
CLTC Clathrin, heavy polypeptide (Hc)NM_004859.11213Clathrin is the major protein of the polyhedral coat of coated pits and vesicles.17q23.2YesC
NACA Nascent-polypeptide-associated complex alpha polypeptideENST000002283124666The nascent-polypeptide-associated complex binds newly synthesized polypeptide chains as they emerge from the ribosome and prevents them from being incorrectly translocated to the endoplasmic reticulum12q13.3YesC
SUI1 Putative translation initiation factorENST000003108310209May act as a negative growth regulator17q21.2YesC
TUBA6 Tubulin alpha 6ENST0000030107284790Cytoskeletal structural protein12q13.12YesC
  • a Primer design based on this sequence. The database sources are the NCBI Reference Sequence database ( and the Ensembl database (

  • b Ensembl cytogenetic band.

  • c Determined by BLAT search of Human June 2002 Freeze (Ref. 14 ).

  • d Identified from bladder (B) and colon (C).

  • e Genes belonging to the same functional class.

  • f Genes belonging to the same functional class.