Table 1

Description of the characteristics of (A) the representative entire cohort of agricultural population from the Calvados area and of (B) selected male farmers analyzed or not in the present study

CharacteristicsA Entire Cohort (n = 758)B Selected male farmers (n = 144)
FemalesMalesAnalyzed farmersOther identified farmers (not analyzed)
n = 315 (41.5%)n = 443 (58.5%)n = 56n = 88
Median age [min–max]46 [19–96]44 [17–76]46 [27–62]41 [22–60]
Smoking habit
 Never-smokers81%49%Never-smokersNever-smokers
 Current smokers9%26%
 Ex-smokers10%25%
Medication
 No53%76%71.4%80.6%
 Yes47%24%28.6%19.4%
Alcohol consumption
 None21%5.5%2%7%
 Once a week47%37%43%40%
 One meal/day13%16.5%25%18%
 At all meals17%31%21%29.5%
 More2%10%9%5.5%
Job title
 Farm owner46%78%95%92%
 Agricultural worker7%10%2%7%
 Retired5%7%1.5%1%
 Spouse38%1.4%1.5%0%
Mean duration of agricultural employment (years ± SD)27 ± 14 (1–59)27 ± 12 (1–62)28.5 ± 10 (5–48)24.8 ± 10 (2–47)
Pesticide users on open field crops0.6% (n = 2)63%100%100%
Type of pesticide use
 Pesticides on open field crops0.6%63%100%100%
 Herbicides on meadows2%52%61%74%
 Insecticides on animals55%78%85.5%86.5%
 Herbicides on farmyards44%66%75%78.5%
 Herbicides on slopes11%66%76.5%76%
Mean duration of pesticide use (years ± SD)13 ± 10 (6–20)20 ± 9 (1–48)20.6 ± 9 (1–41)18.5 ± 9 (1–48)
Median farm area (hectares [min–max])a97.5 (n = 2)72.5 [0–406]73.5 [12–213]74.5 [0–290]
Median farm area devoted to cropsa78.5 (n = 2)46 [0–403]51 [12–208]48 [0–203]
Median time since last pesticide exposure in days (min–max)6 (n = 1)28 (0–359)28 (0–288)44 (0–203)
Spraying equipmenta
 None0%3%0%0%
 Knapsack sprayer50% (n = 1)3%0%3.5%
 Rear mounted sprayer50% (n = 1)54%55.5%62%
 Trailer sprayer0%20%37.5%6%
 Mixed or self propelling0%20%9%28.5%
Individual protective clothinga,b
 None100%47%44.5%41.5%
 Mask only9%3.5%13.5%
 Gloves only25%31.5%28%
 Mask + gloves19%20.5%17%
Crop diversitya
 Meadow + corn (1)10%4%10%
 Meadow or corn + wheat (2)39%35%40%
 Meadow or corn or wheat + peas (3)7%12.5%6%
 Meadow or corn or wheat or pea + sugar beet (4)8.5%12.5%8%
 Meadow or corn or wheat or pea or sugar beet + flax (5)27%29%28%
 Meadow or corn or wheat or pea or sugar beet or flax + truck farming (6)8.5%7%9%
  • a Percentage shown only for pesticide users (n = 279, 277 men and 2 women).

  • b Individual protective device were used only during mixing loading tasks and not during application.