Table 2.

WST-8 cell survival assay with milk thistle compounds and extracts in prostate carcinoma cells after 72 h of continuous exposure

LNCaP (μmol/L)DU145 (μmol/L)PC3 (μmol/L)
306090306090306090
Silybin A91.0 ± 2.675.9 ± 2.4 *55.9 ± 3.1 *93.1 ± 6.022.7 ± 1.6 *15.2 ± 0.9 *80.6 ± 2.6 *40.3 ± 9.5 *21.9 ± 7.9 *
Silybin B109.9 ± 2.188.2 ± 7.0 29.2 ± 6.3 *96.2 ± 7.367.1 ± 6.6 *33.9 ± 3.6 *67.1 ± 3.2 *23.1 ± 0.5 *12.7 ± 1.6 *
Isosilybin A107.2 ± 4.485.3 ± 5.4 54.4 ± 10.5 *62.5 ± 1.5 *17.2 ± 1.8 *19.9 ± 0.5 *86.8 ± 3.6 43.9 ± 4.7 *22.9 ± 4.0 *
Isosilybin B70.4 ± 3.1 *46.4 ± 3.3 *26.2 ± 4.3 *31.1 ± 0.6 *15.2 ± 0.9 *16.0 ± 0.3 *60.5 ± 1.7 *37.5 ± 0.9 *18.1 ± 3.1 *
Silibinin (Sigma)90.1 ± 3.772.0 ± 3.6 *36.8 ± 1.1 *105.1 ± 2.461.3 ± 8.2 *19.5 ± 1.8 *69.7 ± 3.6 *22.9 ± 2.8 *13.3 ± 0.6 *
Silymarin (Aldrich)90.6 ± 2.991.4 ± 3.147.1 ± 17.6 *100.7 ± 2.475.6 ± 4.9 *11.4 ± 0.4 *81.0 ± 4.4 *35.9 ± 11.1 *20.5 ± 1.6 *
Silymarin (Madaus)120.0 ± 8.6 *96.0 ± 1.271.5 ± 5.080.7 ± 4.068.6 ± 5.4 *30.8 ± 0.9 *84.0 ± 0.5 38.2 ± 2.1 *21.9 ± 1.0 *
Silymarin (Indena)106.1 ± 2.795.8 ± 1.458.5 ± 27.5 93.2 ± 6.383.2 ± 0.5 22.7 ± 3.0 *84.2 ± 8.6 34.4 ± 1.8 *22.8 ± 2.3 *
Silychristin110.4 ± 5.799.7 ± 2.4100.4 ± 3.0106.8 ± 6.059.0 ± 5.9 *16.6 ± 2.5 *101.1 ± 3.145.4 ± 5.9 *21.4 ± 0.9 *
Isosilychristin111.7 ± 3.9102.9 ± 4.294.8 ± 1.598.1 ± 1.898.1 ± 1.999.3 ± 1.598.5 ± 1.392.7 ± 6.076.9 ± 3.2 *
Silydianin101.4 ± 4.2100.4 ± 0.799.1 ± 2.4102.8 ± 4.997.8 ± 6.676.7 ± 3.0 *102.4 ± 2.882.0 ± 4.2 51.3 ± 4.3 *
Taxifolin86.8 ± 3.857.6 ± 0.7 *30.3 ± 1.4 *131.8 ± 23.7 75.5 ± 6.0 *34.2 ± 1.9 *52.4 ± 1.8 *36.2 ± 1.2 *25.9 ± 0.4 *
  • NOTE: Results are presented as mean percent survival ± SD (n = 3) relative to vehicle controls. The original number of cells plated exhibited a substrate conversion rate of 11% to 15% that of 3-day growth controls, such that survival values in this range indicate 100% growth inhibition.

  • * Statistically significant differences from DMSO controls (P < 0.001).

  • Statistically significant differences from DMSO controls (P < 0.05).

  • Statistically significant differences from DMSO controls (P < 0.01).