Table 1.

Clinical, pathologic, and molecular features of toluidine blue–positive and toluidine blue–negative OPLs

AllToluidine blue–negativeToluidine blue–positiveP
Number of lesions1006436
Clinical features
    Located at high-risk sites (%) *59 of 100 (59%)34 of 64 (53%)25 of 36 (69%)0.14
    Largest dimension (mean ± SD) at start of study16 ± 1214 ± 1019 ± 150.16
    Largest dimension (mean ± SD) during follow-up21 ± 1618 ± 1327 ± 190.0049
    Nonhomogeneous lesions at start of study (%)34 of 100 (34%)14 of 59 (24%)20 of 34 (59%)0.0015
    Nonhomogeneous lesions during follow-up (%)56 of 100 (56%)26 of 63 (41%)30 of 36 (83%)<0.0001
Histologic features
    OPLs without dysplasia 1914 of 64 (22%)5 of 36 (14%)
    OPLs with low-grade dysplasia6449 of 64 (77%)15 of 36 (42%)<0.0001
    OPLs with high-grade dysplasia171 of 64 (2%)16 of 36 (44%)
Molecular features
    OPLs with LOH7947 of 64 (73%)32 of 36 (89%)0.077
    OPLS with LOH > 1 arm4117 of 64 (27%)24 of 36 (67%)0.0002
    OPLs with LOH > 2 arms277 of 64 (11%)20 of 36 (56%)<0.0001
    Low risk pattern (retention of 3p and 9p)4335 of 64 (55%)8 of 36 (22%)0.0018
    High-risk pattern (3p and/or 9p LOH plus other arm) §339 of 64 (14%)24 of 36 (67%)<0.0001
Outcome
    OPLs progressing to cancer15 of 100 (15%)3 of 64 (5%)12 of 36 (33%)0.0002
  • * Site at high-risk for cancer progression: floor of mouth and ventrolateral tongue.

  • These patients had a history of oral dysplasia that was excised, but now had a hyperplastic lesion. For all of these cases, the lesion was at the former dysplasia site.

  • Based on Rosin et al. ( 10). Relative risk for low-risk was 1, and high risk 33.4.

  • § Includes loss at evaluated loci on 4q, 8p, 11q, 13q, or 17p.