Table 3.

Meat-cooking mutagens and risk for colorectal adenoma

MutagenAll adenomas (n = 3,696)StageSite *Number of adenomas
OR (95% CI) Nonadvanced (n = 2,271)Advanced (n = 1,425)Colon (n = 2,474)Rectum (n = 688)Single (n = 2,796)Multiple (n = 900)
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Mutagenicity
    Q2 (1,091.0-2,419.5)1.00 (0.88-1.12)1.02 (0.88-1.19)0.95 (0.79-1.14)1.00 (0.87-1.16)0.95 (0.73-1.22)1.04 (0.91-1.19)0.86 (0.67-1.09)
    Q3 (2,419.8-4,507.8)1.06 (0.95-1.20)1.09 (0.94-1.27)1.03 (0.85-1.23)1.07 (0.93-1.24)0.99 (0.77-1.28)1.11 (0.98-1.27)0.91 (0.72-1.16)
    Q4 (4,509.8-9,352.9)1.14 (1.01-1.28)1.17 (1.01-1.37)1.08 (0.90-1.30)1.19 (1.03-1.38)1.07 (0.82-1.39)1.20 (1.05-1.37)0.96 (0.76-1.22)
    Q5 (9,354.8-502,928.3)1.08 (0.95-1.22)1.15 (0.99-1.35)0.97 (0.80-1.18)1.15 (0.99-1.33)0.93 (0.71-1.23)1.11 (0.97-1.28)0.97 (0.76-1.23)
    PtrendP = 0.32P = 0.10P = 0.70P = 0.09P = 0.63P = 0.37P = 0.59
DiMeIQx (ng/d)
    Q2 (0.2-0.5)1.01 (0.90-1.13)1.05 (0.91-1.21)0.95 (0.80-1.13)1.01 (0.88-1.15)0.88 (0.69-1.12)1.00 (0.88-1.14)1.04 (0.83-1.29)
    Q3 (0.5-1.3)0.98 (0.87-1.10)1.06 (0.92-1.22)0.86 (0.72-1.02)1.04 (0.91-1.19)0.81 (0.63-1.03)1.03 (0.91-1.17)0.81 (0.64-1.02)
    Q4 (1.3-2.6)1.10 (0.98-1.22)1.18 (1.03-1.36)0.98 (0.83-1.16)1.11 (0.97-1.27)1.01 (0.80-1.28)1.10 (0.97-1.24)1.08 (0.88-1.34)
    Q5 (2.6-159.1)1.05 (0.94-1.18)1.11 (0.97-1.28)0.97 (0.82-1.15)1.11 (0.97-1.27)0.88 (0.69-1.13)1.08 (0.95-1.22)0.99 (0.79-1.23)
    PtrendP = 0.24P = 0.16P = 0.80P = 0.10P = 0.73P = 0.20P = 0.82
MeIQx (ng/d)
    Q2 (7.0-14.3)0.96 (0.85-1.08)0.98 (0.84-1.13)0.92 (0.77-1.11)1.02 (0.88-1.17)0.70 (0.54-0.90)1.03 (0.90-1.17)0.76 (0.59-0.96)
    Q3 (14.3-25.4)1.06 (0.95-1.19)1.16 (1.01-1.35)0.91 (0.76-1.10)1.12 (0.98-1.30)0.93 (0.73-1.19)1.14 (0.99-1.30)0.85 (0.67-1.07)
    Q4 (25.4-46.3)1.12 (1.00-1.26)1.14 (0.98-1.33)1.09 (0.91-1.31)1.15 (1.00-1.33)0.97 (0.76-1.25)1.18 (1.03-1.35)0.96 (0.77-1.21)
    Q5 (46.3-1,230.8)1.08 (0.95-1.23)1.18 (1.01-1.38)0.94 (0.77-1.14)1.18 (1.01-1.38)0.79 (0.60-1.04)1.14 (0.99-1.32)0.91 (0.71-1.16)
    PtrendP = 0.12P = 0.03P = 0.91P = 0.03P = 0.43P = 0.12P = 0.63
PhIP (ng/d)
    Q2 (16.8-40.0)1.09 (0.97-1.23)1.11 (0.95-1.28)1.06 (0.89-1.28)1.11 (0.96-1.29)0.97 (0.75-1.25)1.12 (0.98-1.28)0.99 (0.78-1.26)
    Q3 (40.1-86.1)1.05 (0.93-1.18)1.08 (0.93-1.25)0.99 (0.82-1.19)1.05 (0.91-1.22)1.03 (0.80-1.33)1.07 (0.93-1.22)0.97 (0.77-1.22)
    Q4 (86.1-222.0)1.13 (1.00-1.28)1.11 (0.95-1.29)1.17 (0.97-1.40)1.17 (1.01-1.35)1.07 (0.83-1.38)1.18 (1.03-1.35)0.98 (0.77-1.24)
    Q5 (222.1-13,334.8)1.11 (0.98-1.25)1.20 (1.04-1.40)0.96 (0.79-1.16)1.17 (1.01-1.35)1.02 (0.79-1.33)1.13 (0.98-1.29)1.03 (0.81-1.31)
    PtrendP = 0.30P = 0.03P = 0.32P = 0.11P = 0.87P = 0.37P = 0.57
Benzo(a)pyrene (ng/d)
    Q2 (0.8-3.0)1.13 (1.00-1.26)1.13 (0.98-1.30)1.13 (0.94-1.34)1.09 (0.95-1.25)1.19 (0.93-1.52)1.16 (1.02-1.31)1.03 (0.82-1.29)
    Q3 (3.0-12.7)1.10 (0.98-1.23)1.10 (0.95-1.27)1.09 (0.91-1.30)1.12 (0.97-1.28)1.04 (0.81-1.34)1.09 (0.96-1.24)1.11 (0.88-1.39)
    Q4 (12.7-42.7)1.00 (0.89-1.13)1.01 (0.87-1.17)0.99 (0.83-1.19)1.03 (0.90-1.19)0.87 (0.67-1.13)1.02 (0.90-1.17)0.93 (0.74-1.18)
    Q5 (42.7-2,168.1)1.15 (1.02-1.29)1.18 (1.02-1.37)1.08 (0.90-1.30)1.18 (1.02-1.35)1.12 (0.87-1.44)1.17 (1.03-1.34)1.06 (0.85-1.33)
    PtrendP = 0.16P = 0.09P = 0.90P = 0.07P = 0.73P = 0.14P = 0.79
  • * Five hundred thirty-four adenoma cases could not be strictly classified as one of these two subsites.

  • Models were adjusted for age, gender, screening center, energy intake (kcal/d, standard method for energy adjustment), ethnicity (American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian, Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic White, or Pacific Islander), educational attainment (<8 years school, 8-11 years school, 12 years school/high school equivalent, post–high school other than college, some college, college graduate, or postgraduate), tobacco use (never, smoked cigar or pipe, quit smoking 20+ years and smoked ≤1 pack/d, quit 20+ years and smoked >1 pack/d, quit <20 years and smoked ≤1 pack/d, quit <20 years and smoked >1 pack/d, or unknown), alcohol use (<1, ≥1-15, >15-30, or >30 g/d), use of aspirin and ibuprofen separately (no regular use, <2, 2-3, 4, 8, 12-16, 30, or 60 per month), vigorous physical activity (none, <1, 1, 2, 3, or 4+ h/wk), BMI (calculated as kg/m2), total folate intake (μg/d), calcium intake (mg/d), and dietary fiber intake (g/d).