Meat groupsTypes of meats * included in the different meat groups
All meatBacon, ham, beef stew 24%, fried fish, fried chicken, hamburgers, hotdogs, lasagna 9%, liver, cold cuts, meatloaf, fish, chicken, pork roast, pork chops, beef roast, sausage, shellfish, pasta 9%, steak, tuna
    Red meatBacon, ham, beef stew 24%, hamburgers, hotdogs, lasagna 9%, liver, cold cuts, meatloaf, pork roast, pork chops, beef roast, sausage, pasta 9%, steak
    White meatFried chicken, other chicken, fried fish, tuna, shellfish, fish (not fried)
    Red meat without donenessHam, beef stew 24%, hotdogs, lasagna 9%, liver, cold cuts, meatloaf, pork roast, beef roast, pasta 9%, steak
    Red meat with doneness/cooking methodsHamburgers, steak, sausage, bacon, pork chops
Doneness
    Red meat rare/mediumHamburgers rare, hamburgers medium, steak rare, steak medium, sausage just, bacon just
    Red meat well-doneHamburgers well-done, steak well-done, pork chops well-done and ham steaks, hotdog or sausage well-done, and bacon well-done/crisp and breakfast sausage
Cooking methods
    Red meat grilledGrilled hamburgers, steak, and pork chops
    Red meat not grilledHamburgers, steak, sausage, bacon, pork chops not grilled
    Red meat broiledBroiled hamburgers, steak, pork chops
    Red meat not broiledHamburgers, steak, broiled, sausage, bacon, and pork chops not broiled
    Red meat friedPan-fried hamburgers, steak, sausage, bacon, pork chops
    Red meat not pan-friedHamburger, steak, pork chop not pan-fried
    Red processed meatHam, hotdogs, cold cuts, bacon, sausage, liver
    Red not processed meatBeef stew 24%, lasagna 9%, pasta 9%, meatloaf, pork roast, beef roast, hamburger, pork, steak
  • * Questions on meat intake were obtained for hamburger/cheeseburger; beef meatloaf/burritos/tacos; steaks; roast beef; beef stew/potpie; hotdogs; lunch meats such as bologna/salami/processed ham; pork chops; pork roast; baked/cured ham; fried chicken; other chicken (roasted/stewed/broiled); liver; fried fish; Tuna/tuna salad/tuna casserole; shellfish (shrimp/crab/lobster); other fish (broiled/baked); bacon; sausage; and gravies made with meat drippings.

  • For steaks and hamburger patties, we obtained information on cooking methods (pan-fried, oven broiled, and grilled/barbecued) and the typical level of doneness (rare, medium rare, medium, medium well, well, and very well-done). For pork chops we obtained information on cooking methods (baked, grilled/barbecued, fried, broiled), whereas for bacon and sausage we inquired about the doneness level (just until done, well-done or crisp, charred). Cooking methods (roasted/baked, grilled/barbecues, broiled, stewed/boiled) were obtained for chicken that was not fried.

  • The percentage of meat in mixed-meat dishes, such as lasagna, stew, and pasta, were obtained from the U.S. Department of Agriculture who use national survey data to estimate amount of individual food items in mixed foods.