Table 3.

The effects of treatment of phenethyl isothiocyanate and sulforaphane and their N-acetylcysteine conjugates on PCNA, TUNEL, and caspase-3, in comparison with their inhibitory activities against lung tumor progression in NNK/B(a)P–treated A/J mice

GroupPercentage of cells expressedRelative tumor inhibitory potency *
PCNATUNELCaspase-3MultiplicityIncidence
1. Control44.4 ± 1.912.7 ± 3.04.7 ± 1.9
2. Phenethyl isothiocyanate (3 μmol/g)23.9 ± 10.437.1 ± 13.8 19.5 ± 5.5 ++
3. Phenethyl isothiocyanate (1.5 μmol/g)43.8 ± 0.814.6 ± 6.211.4 ± 5.3
4. Sulforaphane (3 μmol/g)39.0 ± 10.416.3 ± 9.218.6 ± 5.1
5. Sulforaphane (1.5 μmol/g)17.3 ± 11.7 29.4 ± 5.8 29.3 ± 4.7 +
6. Phenethyl isothiocyanate-N-acetylcysteine (8 μmol/g)25.8 ± 10.137.4 ± 5.9 5.1 ± 2.2+
7. Phenethyl isothiocyanate-N-acetylcysteine (4 μmol/g)44.4 ± 15.013.6 ± 8.327.6 ± 5.9
8. Sulforaphane-N-acetylcysteine (8 μmol/g)18.6 ± 5.4 53.7 ± 15.5 21.9 ± 5.1 ++
9. Sulforaphane-N-acetylcysteine (4 μmol/g)17.0 ± 4.7 49.7 ± 11.8 29.5 ± 4.4 ++
  • * +, a significant inhibition of lung adenocarcinoma formation as compared with group 1 (P < 0.05); −, no significant inhibition.

  • P < 0.01, compared with group 1.

  • P < 0.05, compared with group 1.