Table 1.

Genetic and epigenetic mouse models of intestinal tumors involving altered differentiation in the normal epithelium

Mouse modelTarget gene (reference)Frequency in normal human tissueDedifferentiation phenotype
Genetic mouse models
    Noggin transgeneBmp inhibition (26)RareEctopic crypt formation
    Muc2−/−Muc2 inactivation (27)RareElongation of crypt
Decreased goblet cell differentiation
Increased proliferation
Decreased apoptosis
    p27−/−p27 inactivation (28)RareDecreased goblet cell differentiation
Increased proliferation
Decreased apoptosis
Epigenetic mouse model
    H19−/+Igf2 LOI (22)CommonElongation of crypt
Increased staining of progenitor cell markers