Table 2.

Overall spontaneous and NNK-induced frequencies of micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges, and nuclear buds per 1,000 binucleated cells by age, gender, and years smoked in lung cancer cases and controls

Case mean ± SE (median)Control mean ± SE (median)
Spontaneous
    Overall
        Micronuclei3.41 ± 0.13 (3.0)1.98 ± 0.12 (2.0)
        Nucleoplasmic bridges4.14 ± 0.10 (4.0)0.57 ± 0.07 (0.0)
        Nuclear buds0.28 ± 0.04 (0.0)0.05 ± 0.02 (0.0)
    Males
        Micronuclei3.47 ± 0.17 (3.0)1.95 ± 0.13 (2.0)
        Nucleoplasmic bridges4.13 ± 0.12 (4.0)0.57 ± 0.08 (0.0)
        Nuclear buds0.29 ± 0.05 (0.0)0.06 ± 0.03 (0.0)
    Females
        Micronuclei3.26 ± 0.25 (3.0)2.05 ± 0.18 (2.0)
        Nucleoplasmic bridges4.17 ± 0.16 (4.5)0.57 ± 0.13 (0.0)
        Nuclear buds0.26 ± 0.07 (0.0)0.0 ± 0.0 (0.0)
    Age ≤62 y
        Micronuclei3.44 ± 0.15 (3.0)1.97 ± 0.14 (2.0)
        Nucleoplasmic bridges4.02 ± 0.12 (4.0)0.55 ± 0.09 (0.0)
        Nuclear buds0.25 ± 0.04 (0.0)0.05 ± 0.02 (0.0)
    Age >62 y
        Micronuclei3.34 ± 0.27 (3.0)1.98 ± 0.18 (2.0)
        Nucleoplasmic bridges4.44 ± 0.16 (5.0)0.60 ± 0.11 (0.0)
        Nuclear buds0.39 ± 0.10 (0.0)0.05 ± 0.03 (0.0)
    Years smoked ≤32
        Micronuclei3.50 ± 0.42 (3.5)1.88 ± 0.21 (2.0)
        Nucleoplasmic bridges3.50 ± 0.38 (3.0)0.42 ± 0.12 (0.0)
        Nuclear buds0.13 ± 0.13 (0.0)0.0 ± 0.0 (0.0)
    Years smoked >32
        Micronuclei3.43 ± 0.14 (3.0)2.00 ± 0.13 (2.0)
        Nucleoplasmic bridges4.13 ± 0.10 (4.0)0.61 ± 0.09 (0.0)
        Nuclear buds0.29 ± 0.04 (0.0)0.06 ± 0.03 (0.0)
    History of alcohol use: yes
        Micronuclei3.47 ± 0.16 (3.00)2.00 ± 0.15 (2.00)
        Nucleoplasmic bridges4.19 ± 0.13 (4.00)0.58 ± 0.11 (0.00)
        Nuclear buds0.29 ± 0.05 (0.00)0.07 ± 0.03 (0.00)
    History of alcohol use: no
        Micronuclei3.32 ± 0.23 (3.00)1.88 ± 0.16 (2.00)
        Nucleoplasmic bridges4.02 ± 0.16 (4.00)0.55 ± 0.10 (0.00)
        Nuclear buds0.27 ± 0.07 (0.00)0.03 ± 0.02 (0.00)
NNK induced
    Overall
        Micronuclei4.32 ± 0.10 (4.0)2.62 ± 0.10 (3.0)
        Nucleoplasmic bridges8.12 ± 0.19 (8.0)2.38 ± 0.09 (2.0)
        Nuclear buds1.07 ± 0.09 (1.0)0.12 ± 0.03 (0.0)
    Males
        Micronuclei4.37 ± 0.13 (4.0)2.63 ± 0.11 (3.0)
        Nucleoplasmic bridges8.07 ± 0.23 (8.0)2.27 ± 0.10 (2.0)
        Nuclear buds1.07 ± 0.11 (1.0)0.12 ± 0.03 (0.0)
    Females
        Micronuclei4.19 ± 0.17 (4.0)2.51 ± 0.23 (2.0)
        Nucleoplasmic bridges8.24 ± 0.32 (8.0)2.68 ± 0.19 (2.0)
        Nuclear buds1.07 ± 0.12 (1.0)0.11 ± 0.05 (1.0)
    Age ≤62 y
        Micronuclei4.22 ± 0.11 (4.0)2.58 ± 0.14 (2.0)
        Nucleoplasmic bridges8.11 ± 0.23 (8.0)2.41 ± 0.11 (2.0)
        Nuclear buds1.12 ± 0.11 (1.0)0.13 ± 0.04 (0.0)
    Age >62 y
        Micronuclei4.54 ± 0.22 (4.0)2.75 ± 0.15 (3.0)
        Nucleoplasmic bridges8.15 ± 0.33 (8.0)2.35 ± 0.14 (2.0)
        Nuclear buds0.90 ± 0.17 (1.0)0.10 ± 0.05 (0.0)
    Years smoked ≤32
        Micronuclei3.63 ± 0.32 (4.0)2.33 ± 1.02 (2.0)
        Nucleoplasmic bridges9.25 ± 0.96 (8.3)2.36 ± 0.19 (2.0)
        Nuclear buds1.13 ± 0.44 (1.0)0.06 ± 0.04 (0.0)
    Years smoked >32
        Micronuclei4.33 ± 0.10 (4.0)2.69 ± 0.12 (3.0)
        Nucleoplasmic bridges8.07 ± 0.19 (8.0)2.39 ± 0.09 (2.0)
        Nuclear buds1.08 ± 0.01 (1.0)0.13 ± 0.04 (0.0)
    History of alcohol use: yes
        Micronuclei4.37 ± 0.14 (4.00)2.61 ± 0.15 (2.00)
        Nucleoplasmic bridges8.14 ± 0.24 (8.00)2.32 ± 0.12 (2.00)
        Nuclear buds1.04 ± 0.11 (1.00)0.11 ± 0.04 (0.00)
    History of alcohol use: no
        Micronuclei4.26 ± 0.14 (4.00)2.54 ± 0.15 (3.00)
        Nucleoplasmic bridges8.04 ± 0.32 (8.00)2.40 ± 0.13 (2.00)
        Nuclear buds1.09 ± 0.18 (1.00)0.14 ± 0.04 (0.00)