Table 3.

Distributions and risk estimates of lung cancer for spontaneous and NNK-induced micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges, and nuclear buds

VariableCase patients, n (%)Control subjects, n (%)OR (95% CI) * or P
Micronuclei
    Pearson's χ2 test
        Spontaneous
            0 or 113 (9.4)52 (40.0)
            2 or 361 (43.9)63 (48.5)
            ≥465 (46.8)15 (11.5)<0.001
        NNK induced
            1 or 25 (3.6)64 (49.2)
            3 or 478 (56.1)58 (44.6)
            ≥556 (40.3)8 (6.2)<0.001
    Multivariate logistic
        Regression analysis
            Spontaneous1391302.06 (1.60-2.65)
            NNK induced1391302.32 (2.32-4.80)
Nucleoplasmic bridges
    Pearson's χ2 test
        Spontaneous
            0 or 10 (0.0)112 (86.2)
            2 or 348 (34.5)18 (13.9)
            ≥491 (65.5)0 (0.0)<0.001
        NNK induced
            0 or 20 (0.0)84 (64.6)
            3 or 515 (10.8)46 (35.4)
            ≥6124 (89.2)0 (0.0)<0.001
    Multivariate logistic
        Regression analysis
            Spontaneous13913029.05 (7.48-112.80)
            NNK induced13913045.52 (4.48-422.17)
Nuclear buds
    Pearson's χ2 test
        Spontaneous
            0102 (73.4)122 (95.3)
            135 (25.2)6 (4.7)
            22 (1.4)0 (0.0)<0.001
        NNK induced
            048 (34.5)113 (86.9)
            159 (42.5)15 (11.5)
            ≥232 (23.0)2 (1.5)0.001
    Multivariate logistic
        Regression analysis
            Spontaneous1391306.53 (2.37-18.01)
            NNK induced13913010.10 (4.67-21.87)
  • * Adjusted by age, gender, history of alcohol use, number of years smoked, and number of cigarettes smoked per day.

  • Ps are derived from the Pearson's χ2 test and are two sided.