Table 1.
A. Proteins increased in 1170-I compared with NHBE cells
ProteinFunctionIncreased fold
DNA synthesis and DNA repair
    DHFRA protein that regenerates tetrahydrofolate, which is the coenzyme for thymidilate synthetase##
    DNA pol epsiFunctions in DNA replication and repair18.9
    DNA polydEssential for DNA replication with proofreading function5.0
    FEN-1An exonuclease and endonuclease that is essential for maintaining DNA integrity during replication and after damage by alkylating agents or UV4.5
    Mre 11Functions in a multiprotein complex that possesses endonuclease and 3′ to 5′ exonuclease activity during DNA maintenance and repair##
    MSH2DNA mismatch repair gene4.2
    MSH6DNA mismatch repair gene9.0
    Mupp 1Important in protein-protein interactions during G-protein–coupled receptor signaling##
    NMT-2A myristoytransferase that catalyzes NH2-terminal myristoylation, a cotranslational lipid modification form at cell-matrix junctions8.6
    PCNAA nuclear antigen in proliferating cells and a subunit for DNA polymerase δ6.0
    PRK1Binds to Rho-GTP and may regulate cytoskeleton changes##
    Rad50Together with Mre11 and Nbs1 forms a complex that is involved in recombination and DNA damage checkpoints in the cellular response to DNA double-strand break##
    TOPO IIaA ubiquitous ATP-dependent type II topoisomerase that is essential in DNA replication, transcription, chromatin segregation, and cell cycle progression##
    WRNA RECQ-like helicase, which is deficient in Werner syndrome and plays a critical structural role in DNA double-strand break repair3.1
    XPAA DNA-binding protein in the nucleotide excision repair pathway, which modulates damage recognition##
Transcription and RNA degradation
    ARNT-1Subunit of the hypoxia inducible factor-1, which is a constitutively expressed basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor##
    Ataxin-2A protein important for RNA splicing or protein complex formation in many normal tissues, whereas polyglutamine containing ataxin-2 leads to neuropathology##
    DekA DNA binding protein that functions in transcriptional regulation and signal transduction; DEK-CAN fusion protein is oncogenic##
    LEDGFA transcription activator that is essential for cell growth and survival##
    RNase H1Specifically degrades the RNA moiety of RNA-DNA hybrids5.9
    Spot 14An important transcription factor involved with normal lipogenesis in response to changes in the level of hormones and diet4.1
    STAT5A member of the STAT family, which are critical mediators of the biological activity of cytokines by promoting transcription of cytokine-inducible genes##
    TEF-1A member of a family of transcription factors that contain a conserved DNA-binding domain TEA/ATT11.6
    TFIIBA ubiquitous factor required for transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II2.3
    TIF2A nuclear receptor coactivator that associates with CREB-binding protein, and MOZ-TIF2 fusion protein is associated with acute myeloid leukemia##
Translation
    DDX1A RNA helicase (DEAD box protein) that function in all aspects of RNA metabolism, including translation, ribosome biogenesis, and pre-mRNA splicing##
    IAK1One of the factors that control polyadenylation and translation in Xenopus oocytes, which also phosphorylates and polyadenylates CPEB##
    p70s6KA kinase of ribosomal protein S6, which is a regulator of protein synthesis3.0
Cell cycle regulation
    ALM1A protein that is essential for cleavage furrowing and onset of cytokinesis in cell cycle##
    Bub3A protein that associates with Bub1 to sense kinetochore attachment to microtubules during prometaphase to metaphase transition3.8
    CaMKKAn upstream regulator in Ca2+/CaM–dependent neural processes and a kinase of Akt##
    Cas K II βA serine/threonine protein kinase, which phosphorylates p34cdc2, c-Jun, and nuclear matrix protein and is required for cell cycle regulation and associated with the nuclear matrix##
    Cdk1Cdc2, a serine/threonine protein kinase, whose binding with cyclin B initiates the cell's entry into mitosis##
    Cdk1Cdc2, a serine/threonine protein kinase, whose binding with cyclin B initiates the cell's entry into mitosis##
    Chk1A cell cycle regulatory protein kinase that inactivates Cdc2 and arrest cell cycle5.0
    Cyclin B1A subunit for the cdc2 (Cdk1) protein kinase##
    Cyclin D3A D-type cyclin that is associated with Cdk5 and weakly with Cdk2 and downstream of p70S6K in PI3K pathway1.5 *
    EGFRReceptor of epidermal growth factor, is essential for epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation and overexpressed in many epithelial cancers##
    Eg5A mitotic protein that regulates spindle formation16.2
    HECA protein that interacts with Rb and plays a role in chromosome segregation during the M phase of the cell cycle13.1
    MCM6A nuclear protein that performs essential functions in regulation of chromatin replication31.6
    MetablastinRegulates the dynamics of microtubule during interphase of the cell cycle by inducing microtubule catastrophes##
    p16ink4A specific inhibitor of cdk4, and inhibits cdk4-dependent phosphorylation of Rb and Rb-related proteins, p107 and p130##
    PP2C deltaA ubiquitous serine/threonine phosphatase that is important for biological processes, such as cell cycle progression8.2
Apoptosis
    AktA kinase of PI3K pathway that is related to cell survival2.6 *
    BaxA proapoptotic member of Bcl-2 family2.8 *
    53BP2Bind Bcl2, p53, and p65 subunit of nuclear factor-κB to regulate apoptosis3.9
    Bcl-XA member of the Bcl-2 protein family that is involved in apoptosis##
    BidA proapoptotic member of the Bcl2 protein family##
    Caspase-7A cysteine protease that promote apoptosis1.7 *
    Caspase-8Initiator caspase activated by death receptor and cleaves proapoptotic Bid
    CD40A member of the TNF receptor family, which involved in B-cell survival, growth, differentiation, and immunoglobulin class switching2.6
    DFF45A subunit of DFF that is cleaved by caspase-3 and is essential for DNA fragmentation during apoptosis3.2 *
    FAFA protein that binds to the intracellular portion of FAS/Apo-1 and potentiates apoptosis in L-cells2.4
    MetaxinA protein located on the outer membrane of mitochondria and is required for TNF-induced cell death##
    p53A tumor suppressor gene##
    PARPOne of the earliest proteins targeted by caspase-3 during apoptosis4.5 *
    PDK1A kinase of PI3K pathway that activates downstream Akt2.0 *
Cytoskeleton and cell motility
    cdc42GAPOne of the small GTPases that regulate cytoskeletal reorganization leading to changes in cell morphology and cell motility3.7
    CRIKA serine/threonine kinase that functions downstream of Rho during cytokinesis and synaptic transmission##
    DMPKA putative serine/threonine kinase from the Rho-associated enzyme family, which is related to the actin cytoskeleton and membrane proteins##
    PRK1Binds to Rho-GTP and may regulate cytoskeleton changes##
    tauA microtubule-associated protein whose dysfunction may lead to some neurodegenerative diseases7.8
Cell adhesion
    Hic 5A focal adhesion protein that binds to focal adhesion kinases and PYK2/CAKb3.4
    N-cadherinA member of the cadherin family of Ca2+-dependent intercellular adhesion molecules##
    R-cadherinA member of the cadherin family of Ca2+-dependent intercellular adhesion molecules##
    MDC9ADAM9, a member of the ADAM family of metalloproteases, which play important roles in cell-cell fusion, intracellular signaling, and other cellular functions3.1
    NexilinA filamentous actin binding protein that is components of the focal contacts8.2
    SymplekinA component of the submembraneous face of the tight junction in polar epithelial cells6.6
Angiogenesis
    bFGFA mitogenic and angiogenic factor##
Other cell signaling
    Adaptin αA vesicular trafficking-related protein that is associated with the vesicle coats2.2
    AKAP79One of the PKA type II anchoring proteins, which can form a tertiary complex with PKA and calcineurin##
    Annexin VIA Ca2+ and phospholipid-binding protein that is related to the endocytic pathway2.4
    BAP135A protein identified as a target for phosphorylation by Bruton's tyrosine kinase in B cells7.8
    iNOSAn enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of nitric oxide, which is involved in vasorelaxation, neurotransmission, and cytotoxicity##
    IRAKA serine/threonine kinase that is implicated in IL -1 signaling##
    JAK1A non-receptor tyrosine kinase, which binds to IFN receptors and act on a non-receptor tyrosine kinase5.3
    80K-H(p90)A protein substrate phosphorylated in cells stimulated with FGF1.8 *
    LatAn integral membrane protein that couples the activated TCR with downstream signaling molecules during T-cell activation2.5
    Na/K Ch. B2Na-K-ATPase, an enzyme that has an important role in intestinal sodium and water absorption and is implicated in the metabolism of arachidonate and the release of PG##
    PLCOne type of phospholipase C, which is the enzyme responsible for generating two intracellular second messengers via phosphoinositide hydrolysis##
    p67phoxAn adaptor protein, which is a cytosolic component of NADPH oxidase4.1
    p230 trans GolgiA TGN-specific protein that is important for the biogenesis of special coated vesicles and functions in vesicular transport from the TGN##
    Rag-2A protein expressed in maturing lymphoid cells which is required for V(D)J DNA recombination at loci for immunoglobulin and T cell receptor genes3.8
    RANBP1Responsible for the GTP-bound state of Ran and the increased GTP hydrolysis of Ran GTP##
    Sam68An RNA-binding protein and putative substrate of the insulin receptor in insulin signaling, whose expression is induced by insulin stimulation##
    Sos-1Son of sevenless, a bifunctional guanine nucleotide exchange factor, which activates Ras and coordinates Ras and Rac activity##
    Tyk-2A tyrosine kinase belonging to the Janus-activated kinase family, which associates constitutively with a variety of cytokine and hormone receptors##
B. Proteins decreased in 1170-I compared with NHBE cells
ProteinFunctionDecreased fold
Transcription and RNA degradation
    CUL-2A candidate human tumor suppressor and mediates the function of VHL, which is involved in transcriptional elongation##
    Exportin-tA ubiquitous tRNA-specific nuclear export receptor related to the RanGTP-binding protein##
    G3BPA RasGAP-binding protein that may link the Ras pathway to mRNA degradation2.4
    HcKroxHuman cKrox, a Zn finger-containing transcription factor for regulation of several extracellular matrix genes in skin and bone3.7
    p38 deltaA distinct member of mitogen-activated protein kinases, which phosphorylates transcription factors ATF-1 and PHAS-17.0
    PTRFPromotes the release of RNA polymerase I and nascent transcript from RNA template terminate transcription3.1
    SinSrc interacting or signal integrating protein, functions as both an activator and substrate of Src signaling#
Translation
    Inhibitor 2A regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 1, which is involved in protein synthesis, glycogen metabolism, cell division, and neuronal metabolism9.4
Cell cycle regulation
    14-3-3EImplicated in cellular processes, such as neurotransmission, phospholipase activity, and calcium signaling and associates with several proteins involved in cell proliferation2.4
    ECA39A myc target gene that maybe involved in the regulation of cell cycle2.2
    Nek2A mitotic kinase, which has a role in both maintenance and modulation of centrosome architecture##
    PlectinIs a large cytoskeletal linker protein, which is concentrated at sites of mechanical stress in different cell type5.6
    RbA tumor suppressor gene##
Angiogenesis
    TSP-1Thrombospondin-1, an antiangiogenic factor binding with high affinity to several angiogenic factors, such as FGF-2, and affecting their location and function##
    cskCOOH-terminal Src kinase, a tyrosine kinase that negatively regulates the activity of Src and related kinases and is important for Src's oncogenic potential and vascular development##
Apoptosis
    BruceOne of the ubiquitin activating/conjugating that may be involved in both ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis and antiapoptotic pathways##
    Caspase-3A cysteine protease that promote apoptosis2.4 *
    IGFBP3A proapoptotic molecule that modulates the biological functions of insulin-like growth factors##
    POSHA scaffold protein for a multiprotein complex that mediates JNK activation in apoptosis, and contributes to Rac-induced signal transduction pathway2.2
Cytoskeleton and cell motility
    GRIPGlutamate receptor interacting protein, an adaptor that links AMPA receptors to cytoskeletal and/or signaling molecules to cluster them at the synapse##
    Moesin PA protein that localizes to cytoskeleton and modify interactions between cytoskeletal and membrane proteins4.5
    RhoA member of Ras superfamily of GTPase that regulates cell morphology and motility##
Cell adhesion
    BrevicanA neural-specific proteoglycan of the brain extracellular matrix, which decorates the surface of large neuronal somata and primary dendrites##
    E-cadherinA calcium-dependent adhesion molecule19.7
    α-cateninAn E-cadherin-associated protein that is involved in cell adhesion and metastasis2.2
    γ-cateninPlakoglobin, a component of desmosome18.0
    Integrin β4A subunit of integrin, which mediates cell adhesion to extracellular matrix4.3
    VLA-2αA member of the integrin superfamily of receptors postulated to have a substantial role in the metastasis##
Cytoskeleton and cell motility
    GRIPGlutamate receptor interacting protein, an adaptor that links AMPA receptors to cytoskeletal and/or signaling molecules to cluster them at the synapse##
    Moesin PA protein that localizes to cytoskeleton and modify interactions between cytoskeletal and membrane proteins4.5
    RhoA member of Ras superfamily of GTPase that regulates cell morphology and motility##
Other cell signaling
    AcHR ββ-Subunit of acetylcholine receptor, phosphorylation of which is responsible for triggering several effects at the postsynaptic membrane##
    BMXBone marrow x kinase, a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase##
    Cab45A member of EF-hand Calcium binding proteins11.6
    CASKA cytosolic protein kinase, which interacts with neurexin2.4
    Caveolin 2VIP 21, a transmembrane adaptor molecule that can recognize GPI-linked proteins and interact with downstream cytoplasmic signaling molecules##
    CellugyrinRepresents a ubiquitously expressed four transmembrane domain protein that is closely related to synaptic vesicle protein synaptogyrin5.5
    COX-2Also known as prostaglandin H synthase, which catalyzes the conversion of arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 and induced by IL-12.1
    EAAT2The glial glutamate transporter that is primarily responsible for clearance of glutamate from the synaptic cleft4.1
    FKBP 65FK506-binding protein, immunosuppressive effects of FK506 and FKBPS results from the inhibition of the calcineurin phosphatase2.4
    4F2hCHeavy-chain subunit of heterodimetric y+L, which transpors l-Arginine4.0
    HO-2Heme oxygenase-2, a protein that is constitutively expressed in neurons and catalyzes heme breakdown##
    HS1Lck-binding protein 1 (lckBP1), associated with lck and may be an adaptor that regulates cellular tyrosine kinases##
    IP3-γA second messenger for many hormones, growth factors, and neurotransmitters3.2
    MCCThe mutated in colorectal cancer gene, a tumor suppressor that is deleted in colorectal cancers##
    NMDAR2BOne of the ionotropic receptors of glutamate, which is a neurotransmitter of synapses2.9
    PKC𝛉A serine/threonine protein kinase of the PKC family, which is involved in a number of processes such as growth, differentiation, and cytokine secretion##
    trkBReceptor of neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor and NT4 activation triggers multiple signaling pathways2.7
  • NOTE: # #, presence versus absence of a protein: fold change is immeasurable.

    All the increases marked with asterisks were confirmed by conventional Western blotting.

  • * The increase in protein level is the average of three experiments in which at least one showed <2-fold increase.