Table 1.

Urogenital system tumors induced by transplacental arsenic exposure together with postnatal diethylstilbestrol or tamoxifen treatment in female CD1 mice

Tumor typeGroup (n)
Control (33)Arsenic alone (34)DES alone (33)TAM alone (35)Arsenic + DES (33)Arsenic + TAM (35)
Urogenital tumor
    Any type
        Benign0 (0%)10 (29%) *3 (9%)2 (6%)11 (33%) *, 6 (18%) *
        Malignant0 (0%)3 (9%)7 (21%) *2 (6%)16 (48%) *, , 5 (14%) *
        Total0 (0%)12 (35%) *10 (30%) *4 (11%)20 (61%) *, , 11 (33%) *, §
        Multiple site0 (0%)2 (6%)0 (0%)0 (0%)11 (33%) *, , 1 (3%)
    Epithelial
        Adenoma0 (0%)7 (21%) *3 (9%)2 (6%)6 (18%) *5 (14%) *
        Carcinoma0 (0%)2 (6%)7 (21%) *2 (6%)15 (45%) *, , 5 (14%) *
        Total epithelial0 (0%)9 (26%) *10 (30%) *4 (11%)18 (55%) *, , 9 (27%) *
        Multiple site0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)8 (24%) *, , 1 (3%)
  • NOTE: Pregnant female mice were exposed to sodium arsenite from days 8 to 18 of gestation, female offspring were treated with diethylstilbestrol or tamoxifen on days 1 to 5 postpartum, and tumors were assessed in female offspring as adults (see Materials and Methods for treatment details). Samples size (n) is the number of mice at risk. The urogenital system was considered to include the tissues of the genital system, including ovary, oviduct, uterus, cervix, and vagina, and the urinary system, including urinary bladder and kidney. The designation of tumors of “any type” includes both mesenchymal and epithelial tumors. The incidence of benign tumors is given irrespective of more advanced tumors in the same tissue. Total tumor incidence is defined as those mice bearing at least one benign or malignant tumor. The incidence of tumors at multiple sites is the number of cases where two or more tumors occurred at separate sites in the urogenital system of the same animal.

    Abbreviations: DES, diethylstilbestrol; TAM, tamoxifen.

  • * Significantly different (P < 0.05) from control.

  • Significantly different (P < 0.05) from diethylstilbestrol alone.

  • Significantly different (P < 0.05) from arsenic alone.

  • § Significantly different (P < 0.05) from tamoxifen alone.