Table 1.

Overview of tumor outcomes for all treatments in this study

A. Treatments, survival, and melanocytic tumors
Neonatal treatment, d3 (4, 5) Adult treatment, d28-endInk4aSurvival (d)MelanomasNevi
n−−/n+−/n++nntm§Yield
Experiment 1A
    1: 10 μg DMBANone12/12/0226059108 *0.83 *
    2: 10 μg DMBA25 μg TPA 2×/wk13/13/0216013382ns2.08ns
    3: 10 μg DMBA35.7 J/m2 UV/d12/11/013804784ns0.85 *
    4: 10 μg DMBA250 J/m2UV/wk7/8/012006266 3.00
    5: 10 μg DMBA375 J/m2 UV/2wk11/6/0139013252 ***4.71ns
    6: 10 μg DMBA375 J/m2 UV/2wk0/8/16160114262ns3.74ns
Experiment 1B ††
    7: NoneNone13/15/0284016432 ***0.00 ***
    8: 250 J/m2 UVNone8/7/0256013300 ***0.13 **
    9: None375 J/m2 UV/2wk13/6/0190048146ns0.21ns
    10: 250 J/m2 UV375 J/m2 UV/2wk10/8/017104888 **0.83 ††
    11: 250 J/m2 UV35.7 J/m2 UV/d7/11/6 ‡‡143023152 ‡‡0.61 *
Experiment 2 §§
    12: 100 μg DMBA3,000 J/m2 UV/2wk7/12/0140180851 ***32.6 ***
    13: 2,000 J/m2 UV3,000 J/m2 UV/2wk14/13/0235153205ns0.26ns
    14: None3,000 J/m2 UV/2wk9/11/0254353195 §§0 §§
    15: 10 μg DMBA375 J/m2 UV/2wk4/6/7229018133ns0ns
B. Outcomes of nonmelanocytic tumors
Treatment ∥∥PapillomasCystsSCCsSarcomasGLOT
ntmYield ntmYield ntmntmnn
174133 **0.67ns19175ns0.33ns3448 **1*, ¶¶1212
221282ns2.50ns10ns0.27ns4**3**56
328798ns0.82ns9172ns0.13ns13158ns4*711
46466 2.08 20 5186 5175 26
510980ns1.00ns6238ns0.12ns8ns5224ns310
624590ns1.42ns2ns0.05ns6253ns0ns54
75***0.00 **17408ns0.04ns1*1**139
814287 ***0.33ns40115ns1.67 *1*1*93
994111ns1.58ns24133ns0.63ns5275ns0*85
1093102 ††1.50 ††9††0.44 ††3285 ††6336 ††1010
1118396 *3.00 **42103 **1.17ns16*141
1270751 ***31.1 ***26167ns0.63ns5385ns19153 ***610
1327275ns0ns11483 ***2.04 ***0ns20282 **36
14102231 §§0.05 §§25175 §§0 §§9§§5§§87
1555119 **1.20ns5*0.20ns1ns9325 *10
  • NOTE: Levels of significance for yields were obtained by ANOVA and for tumor-free survival by Cox regression (corrected for genotype effects).

    Abbreviations: GL, generalized lymphoma; OT, other tumors such as heamangiomas, papillomas of the conjunctiva, lung, brain, and colorectal tumors; ∑n, total number of tumors observed per group; ns, not significant.

  • * DMBA treatment at day 3; UVB treatment at days 3, 4, and 5.

  • Numbers of Ink4a/Arf knockouts, heterozygotes, and wild types per group. All animals in experiment 1 were Xpa−/−; all animals in experiment 2 were Xpa+/+.

  • tm values were obtained from Kaplan-Meier plots.

  • § Yields were compared at 98 days (experiment 1A) or 140 days (experiments 1B and 2).

  • For statistics, the group exposed weekly to 250 J/m2 UV was used as reference group.

  • Level of significance of <0.05.

  • ** Level of significance of <0.001.

  • †† For statistics, the group exposed neonatally to 250 J/m2 and in adulthood to 375 J/m2 UV per fortnight was used as reference group.

  • ‡‡ Level of significance of <0.01.

  • §§ For uniformity, statistical comparisons are based on homozygous knockouts and heterozygotes only.

  • ∥∥ For statistics, the group sham exposed neonatally and to 3,000 J/m2 UV per fortnight in adulthood was used as reference group.

  • ¶¶ Numbers refer to Table 1A.

  • *** Could not be calculated (percentage of affected animals never reached 50).