Table 1.

Age-standardized characteristics of the study cohort by frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption

Fruits (servings per day)Vegetable (servings per day)
≤1234≥5≤1234≥5
No. women9,29212,4078,0553,1501,5634,24311,02310,1485,4723,581
Age (y)55.757.659.059.359.254.556.858.359.260.0
Height (cm)164164164164164164164164164164
Weight (lbs)153153153153151151152152154155
BMI (kg/m2)23.624.124.023.723.023.423.824.024.023.7
Former or current smoker (%)63.354.950.447.547.554.655.754.054.955.7
    Pack-years *28.322.119.218.318.226.824.021.920.720.9
Regular vigorous exercise (%) 30.540.546.047.445.726.135.542.847.959.8
Postmenopausal status (%)81.681.882.481.583.281.681.881.582.983.0
Current or past hormone use (%) 50.551.752.050.747.246.351.051.953.251.6
Family history of colorectal cancer (%)18.318.419.220.018.417.219.118.419.718.2
Current multivitamin use (%)29.732.334.034.335.332.232.433.132.031.4
Regular aspirin users, ≥2 aspirin per week (%)37.237.537.838.038.738.536.637.937.737.5
Beef/pork/lamb (servings per week)2.32.22.22.12.12.12.22.22.22.2
Folate (μg/d) §, 380.7435.8466.1492.6507.4379.4411.9446.2464.9517.4
Calcium (mg/d) , 9871,0891,1291,1371,1249791,0491,1011,1241,161
Alcohol (g/d) , **7.45.85.04.74.04.85.95.96.06.3
Total caloric intake (calories per day)1,4951,6371,8001,9242,0821,4061,5781,7221,8391,971
Indication for endoscopy (%) ††
    Routine or asymptomatic screen52.356.657.857.858.854.053.956.957.957.7
    Occult or visible blood23.121.521.022.423.523.222.621.521.519.5
    Change in bowel habits9.69.79.59.29.59.310.59.39.18.5
    Abdominal pain20.219.719.519.619.320.619.919.319.120.2
  • NOTE: All variables were calculated from the most recent questionnaire cycle before endoscopy; values are means unless indicated otherwise. Fruit and vegetable intake was cumulative up to the most recent questionnaire cycle before endoscopy.

  • * Pack-years were calculated among former and current smokers only.

  • Regular vigorous exercise was defined as vigorous physical activity (enough to work up a sweat) at least ≥1 d/week or >10.6 metabolic equivalent per week.

  • Current or past hormone use percentages are calculated among postmenopausal women only.

  • § Total folate intake (from diet and from supplements).

  • Energy adjusted.

  • Total calcium intake (from diet and from supplements).

  • ** Mean alcohol consumption includes nondrinkers.

  • †† Participants may have marked more than one indication; however, routine or asymptomatic screening excluded participants who reported occult or visible blood, change in bowel habits, abdominal pain, or any other symptom or sign as an indication.