Table 2.

Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of adenomas of the distal colon or rectum (prevalent adenomas)

≤3 servings/day4 servings/day5 servings/day6 servings/day≥7 servings/dayPtrendOR (95% CI) for one additional serving/day
All fruits and vegetables
    No. cases368360361268363
    No. noncases7,3966,5466,2795,0537,473
    Age-adjusted OR (95% CI)1.0 (reference)1.03 (0.89-1.20)1.03 (0.89-1.20)0.93 (0.79-1.09)0.82 (0.71-0.95)0.010.95 (0.92-0.98)
    Covariate-adjusted OR (95% CI *)1.0 (reference)1.02 (0.88-1.19)1.02 (0.87-1.19)0.91 (0.76-1.07)0.81 (0.68-0.96)0.020.95 (0.91-0.98)
≤1 serving/day2 servings/day3 servings/day4 servings/day≥5 servings/dayPtrendOR (95% CI) for one additional serving/day
All fruits
    No. cases46865039815054
    No. noncases8,82411,7577,6573,0001,509
    Age-adjusted OR (95% CI)1.0 (reference)0.96 (0.85-1.09)0.87 (0.76-0.10)0.82 (0.68-0.99)0.59 (0.44-0.79)<0.0010.91 (0.87-0.95)
    Covariate-adjusted OR (95% CI)1.0 (reference)0.98 (0.86-1.11)0.88 (0.76-1.02)0.82 (0.67-1.01)0.60 (0.44-0.81)0.0010.91 (0.87-0.96)
≤1 serving/day2 servings/day3 servings/day4 servings/day≥5 servings/dayPtrendOR (95% CI) for one additional serving/day
All vegetables
    No. cases177572514298159
    No. noncases4,06610,4519,6345,1743,422
    Age-adjusted OR (95% CI)1.0 (reference)1.15 (0.97-1.37)1.06 (0.89-1.27)1.11 (0.92-1.35)0.87 (0.70-1.09)0.150.97 (0.93-1.01)
    Covariate-adjusted OR (95% CI)1.0 (reference)1.08 (0.90-1.29)1.00 (0.83-1.20)1.04 (0.85-1.20)0.82 (0.65-1.05)0.100.96 (0.91-1.01)
≤2 servings/week3-4 servings/week5-6 servings/week1 serving/day≥2 servings/dayPtrendOR (95% CI) for one additional serving/day
Total citrus fruit
    No. cases301268265739146
    No. noncases5,5864,7445,14214,0463,211
    Age-adjusted OR (95% CI)1.0 (reference)1.01 (0.86-1.20)0.91 (0.76-1.07)0.90 (0.79-1.04)0.78 (0.64-0.96)0.0080.95 (0.92-0.99)
    Covariate-adjusted OR (95% CI)1.0 (reference)1.04 (0.87-1.23)0.94 (0.79-1.12)0.93 (0.81-1.08)0.81 (0.65-1.00)0.020.93 (0.87-1.00)
≤4 servings/week5-6 servings/week1 serving/day2 servings/day≥3 servings/dayPtrendOR (95% CI) for one additional serving/day
Fruits and vegetables rich in vitamin C
    No. cases219209473596223
    No. noncases4,4253,4529,04811,3904,430
    Age-adjusted OR (95% CI)1.0 (reference)1.17 (0.96-1.42)0.98 (0.83-1.16)0.94 (0.80-1.11)0.90 (0.74-1.09)0.030.96 (0.92-1.00)
    Covariate-adjusted OR (95% CI)1.0 (reference)1.15 (0.94-1.40)0.99 (0.83-1.17)0.94 (0.79-1.11)0.88 (0.72-1.08)0.030.96 (0.91-1.00)
≤3 servings/week4-5 servings/week6 servings/week1 serving/day>1 servings/dayPtrendOR (95% CI) for one additional serving/day
Green leafy vegetables
    No. cases441355181186553
    No. noncases9,1666,5413,3733,21410,404
    Age-adjusted OR (95% CI)1.0 (reference)1.06 (0.92-1.23)1.04 (0.87-1.24)1.14 (0.95-1.35)1.00 (0.89-1.15)0.931.00 (0.97-1.03)
    Covariate-adjusted OR (95% CI)1.0 (reference)0.94 (0.79-1.11)1.00 (0.81-1.22)0.97 (0.79-1.19)0.94 (0.80-1.09)0.530.98 (0.95-1.01)
≤1 serving/week2 servings/week3-4 servings/week5-6 servings/week≥1 serving/dayPtrendOR (95% CI) for one additional servings/day
Cruciferous vegetables
    No. cases223326570346255
    No. noncases5,1466,03310,4365,9285,199
    Age-adjusted OR (95% CI)1.0 (reference)1.16 (0.97-1.38)1.13 (0.96-1.32)1.19 (1.00-1.41)0.97 (0.81-1.17)0.711.00 (0.96-1.03)
    Covariate-adjusted OR (95% CI)1.0 (reference)1.08 (0.91-1.29)1.05 (0.90-1.24)1.12 (0.94-1.34)0.90 (0.75-1.10)0.380.98 (0.94-1.02)
≤1 serving/week2 servings/week3 servings/week4-5 servings/week≥6 servings/weekPtrendOR (95% CI) for one additional servings/day
Potatoes
    No. cases329308331440298
    No. noncases6,6966,3915,6198,0775,757
    Age-adjusted OR (95% CI)1.0 (reference)0.97 (0.83-1.14)1.20 (1.03-1.41)1.15 (1.00-1.34)1.14 (0.97-1.34)0.041.05 (1.01-1.08)
    Covariate-adjusted OR (95% CI)1.0 (reference)0.98 (0.83-1.16)1.23 (1.05-1.46)1.20 (1.03-1.41)1.17 (0.97-1.40)0.041.06 (1.01-1.10)
≤1 serving/week2 servings/week3 servings/week4 servings/week≥5 servings/weekPtrendOR (95% CI) for one additional servings/day
Legumes
    No. cases505585255126249
    No. noncases9,8379,9385,1742,3905,408
    Age-adjusted OR (95% CI)1.0 (reference)1.13 (1.00-1.28)0.93 (0.80-1.09)1.01 (0.82-1.23)0.90 (0.77-1.06)0.060.97 (0.93-1.00)
    Covariate-adjusted OR (95% CI)1.0 (reference)1.12 (0.99-1.27)0.89 (0.76-1.05)0.97 (0.79-1.19)0.89 (0.75-1.05)0.040.96 (0.93-1.00)
  • * Covariate-adjusted OR and 95% CI adjusted for age (5-year categories), family history of colorectal cancer, height (continuous), BMI (weight/height2; continuous), regular vigorous exercise (<1.7, 1.7-4.5, 4.6-10.5, 10.6-22.1, >22.1 metabolic equivalent task score per week), regular aspirin use (<2 tablets per week, ≥2 tablets per week), pack-years of smoking (never, 0.1-10, 10.1-20, 20.1-40, >40), current multivitamin supplement use, alcohol consumption (none, 0.1-4.9 g, ≥5 g/d), total caloric intake (continuous), red meat consumption (≤1/wk, 2-4/wk, 5-6/wk, ≥1/d), calcium intake (quintiles), menopausal status, and postmenopausal hormone use (never, current, and past).