Table 3.

Fruit and vegetable consumption and incidence of adenomas of the distal colon or rectum (restricted to women who were adenoma-free in a previous endoscopy)

≤3 servings/day4 servings/day5 servings/day6 servings/day≥7 servings/dayPtrendOR (95% CI) for one additional servings/day
All fruits and vegetables
    No. cases133108131110151
    No. noncases1,9561,8401,9151,5782,446
    Age-adjusted OR (95% CI)1.0 (reference)0.79 (0.61-1.03)0.87 (0.68-1.12)0.86 (0.66-1.11)0.72 (0.57-0.93)0.020.94 (0.89-0.99)
    Covariate-adjusted OR (95% CI) *1.0 (reference)0.76 (0.58-1.00)0.81 (0.62-1.06)0.79 (0.59-1.05)0.66 (0.50-0.88)0.0070.92 (0.86-0.99)
≤1 serving/day2 servings/day3 servings/day4 servings/day≥5 servings/dayPtrendOR (95% CI) for one additional servings/day
All fruits
    No. cases1602471425529
    No. noncases2,4443,4292,399985478
    Age-adjusted OR (95% CI)1.0 (reference)0.99 (0.81-1.22)0.77 (0.61-0.97)0.69 (0.50-0.95)0.75 (0.50-1.14)0.0030.89 (0.83-0.96)
    Covariate-adjusted OR (95% CI)1.0 (reference)1.02 (0.82-1.26)0.77 (0.59-0.99)0.66 (0.47-0.93)0.74 (0.47-1.16)0.0060.88 (0.81-0.96)
≤1 serving/day2 servings/day3 servings/day4 servings/day≥5 servings/dayPtrendOR (95% CI) for one additional servings/day
All vegetables
    No. cases6318718512375
    No. noncases9892,9922,9781,6731,103
    Age-adjusted OR (95% CI)1.0 (reference)0.92 (0.68-1.24)0.86 (0.64-1.15)0.97 (0.70-1.33)0.85 (0.60-1.20)0.560.98 (0.91-1.05)
    Covariate-adjusted OR (95% CI)1.0 (reference)0.83 (0.61-1.13)0.77 (0.57-1.06)0.86 (0.61-1.21)0.77 (0.53-1.14)0.370.97 (0.89-1.05)
≤2 servings/week3-4 servings/week5-6 servings/week1 servings/day≥2 servings/dayPtrendOR (95% CI) for one additional servings/day
Total citrus fruit
    No. cases1161059626452
    No. noncases15651316149943401010
    Age-adjusted OR (95% CI)1.0 (reference)1.04 (0.79-1.37)0.83 (0.63-1.10)0.74 (0.59-0.93)0.63 (0.45-0.88)<0.0010.89 (0.83-0.94)
    Covariate-adjusted OR (95% CI)1.0 (reference)1.03 (0.77-1.36)0.87 (0.65-1.17)0.73 (0.57-0.92)0.60 (0.42-0.86)<0.0010.88 (0.82-0.94)
≤4 servings/day5-6 servings/week1 servings/day2 servings/day≥3 servings/dayPtrendOR (95% CI) for one additional servings/day
Fruits and vegetables rich in vitamin C
    No. cases768516921390
    No. noncases1,1349802,5273,5891,504
    Age-adjusted OR (95% CI)1.0 (reference)1.27 (0.92-1.76)0.93 (90.70-1.23)0.79 (0.60-1.04)0.77 (0.56-1.06)0.0020.90 (0.84-0.96)
    Covariate-adjusted OR (95% CI)1.0 (reference)1.22 (0.88-1.70)0.93 (0.70-1.25)0.76 (0.57-1.01)0.71 (0.50-1.00)0.00080.88 (0.82-0.95)
≤3 servings/week4-5 servings/week6 servings/week1 servings/day>1 servings/dayPtrendOR (95% CI) for one additional servings/day
Green leafy vegetables
    No. cases1421356575215
    No. noncases2,1951,9921,0159753,550
    Age-adjusted OR (95% CI)1.0 (reference)1.05 (0.82-1.34)0.96 (0.71-1.30)1.17 (0.87-1.56)0.90 (0.72-1.12)0.330.98 (0.93-1.03)
    Covariate-adjusted OR (95% CI)1.0 (reference)1.01 (0.78-1.29)0.87 (0.64-1.19)0.87 (0.76-1.39)0.78 (0.61-0.98)0.020.94 (0.89-0.99)
≤1 serving/week2 servings/week3-4 servings/week5-6 servings/week≥1 servings/dayPtrendOR (95% CI) for one additional servings/day
Cruciferous vegetables
    No. cases65117193135123
    No. noncases1,3291,7013,2121,7981,695
    Age-adjusted OR (95% CI)1.0 (reference)1.36 (0.99-1.86)1.16 (0.86-1.54)1.40 (1.03-1.91)1.34 (0.98-1.83)0.091.06 (0.99-1.13)
    Covariate-adjusted OR (95% CI)1.0 (reference)1.25 (0.91-1.72)1.08 (0.81-1.46)1.34 (0.98-1.84)1.16 (0.91-1.74)0.141.05 (0.98-1.13)
≤1 serving/week2 servings/week3 servings/week4-5 servings/week≥6 servings/weekPtrendOR (95% CI) for one additional servings/day
Potatoes
    No. cases1309614116493
    No. noncases2,0942,0071,6722,3191,583
    Age-adjusted OR (95% CI)1.0 (reference)0.76 (0.58-0.99)1.39 (1.09-1.79)1.21 (0.95-1.53)1.07 (0.82-1.42)0.131.07 (1.01-1.13)
    Covariate-adjusted OR (95% CI)1.0 (reference)0.77 (0.58-1.02)1.46 (1.12-1.90)1.26 (0.97-1.64)1.12 (0.82-1.53)0.131.08 (1.01-1.16)
≤1 serving/week2 servings/week3 servings/week4 servings/week≥5 servings/weekPtrendOR (95% CI) for one additional servings/day
Legumes
    No. cases193208965680
    No. noncases2,8562,9511,5976821,649
    Age-adjusted OR (95% CI)1.0 (reference)1.04 (0.85-1.27)0.87 (0.67-1.12)1.20 (0.88-1.64)0.70 (0.53-0.91)0.0080.94 (0.88-0.99)
    Covariate-adjusted OR (95% CI)1.0 (reference)1.01 (0.82-1.25)0.84 (0.65-1.09)1.10 (0.79-1.52)0.67 (0.51-0.90)0.0050.92 (0.87-0.98)
  • * Covariate-adjusted OR and 95% CI adjusted for age (5-year categories), family history of colorectal cancer, height (continuous), BMI (weight/height2; continuous), regular vigorous exercise (<1.7, 1.7-4.5, 4.6-10.5, 10.6-22.1, >22.1 metabolic equivalent task score per week), regular aspirin use (<2 tablets per week, ≥2 tablets per week), pack-years of smoking (never, 0.1-10, 10.1-20, 20.1-40, >40), current multivitamin supplement use, alcohol consumption (none, 0.1-4.9 g, ≥5 g/d), total caloric intake (continuous), red meat consumption (≤1/wk, 2-4/wk, 5-6/wk, ≥1/d), calcium intake (quintiles), menopausal status, and postmenopausal hormone use (never, current, and past).