Table 1.

CDDO-ME and CDDO-EA suppress lung carcinogenesis

ControlCDDO-ME (60 mg/kg diet)CDDO-EA (400 mg/kg diet)
Analysis of inflated lungs
    No. mice per group291212
    No. tumors per group4628993
    No. tumors per mouse (% control)15.9 (100)7.4 (47) *7.8 (49) *
    No. tumors ≤ 0.5 mm (% total tumors)15 (3)56 (63) 65 (70)
    No. tumors ≥ 0.5 mm, <1 mm (% total tumors)354 (77)33 (37)28 (30)
    No. tumors ≥ 1 mm (% total tumors)94 (20)0 0
Analysis of histopathology
    No. slides/mice per group58/2924/1224/12
    Total no. tumors per group1951719
    Average no. tumors per slide (% control)3.4 (100)0.7 (21) 0.8 (24)
    Total tumor volume on all slides (mm3)434.13.33.8
    Average tumor volume (mm3) per tumor (% control)2.2 (100)0.2 (9) 0.2 (9)
    Average tumor volume (mm3) per slide (% control)7.5 (100)0.1 (2) 0.2 (2)
    No. noninvasive tumors (% total tumors)2 (1)9 (53) *7 (37) *
    No. invasive carcinomas (% total tumors)193 (99)8 (47) *12 (63) *
    No. high-grade tumors (% total tumors)70 (36)1 (6) 0
    No. low-grade tumors (% total tumors)125 (64)16 (94) 19 (100)
    Total volume (mm3) of high-grade tumors (%)279.9 (64)0.5 (16) 0 *
    Total volume (mm3) of low-grade tumors (%)154.2 (36)2.8 (84) 3.8 (100)
  • NOTE: Female A/J mice were injected i.p. with vinyl carbamate (0.32 mg per mouse), once a week for 2 weeks. One week later, the mice were fed CDDO-ME or CDDO-EA in diet for 15 weeks. Triterpenoids were dissolved in vehicle containing 1:3 ethanol/Neobee oil (50 mL/kg diet).

  • * P < 0.001 vs control.

  • P < 0.05 vs control.