Table 2.

Multivariable associations of risk factors for colorectal neoplasia and high levels of inflammatory cytokines, DHS, 1998 to 2002

Risk factorsOR * (95% CI)
CRP (≥12,013.1 ng/mL)IL-6 (≥0.3571 pg/mL)TNF-α (≥2.2358 pg/mL)
Age (y)
    50–641.39 (0.97–2.0)1.6 (1.02–2.5)1.16 (0.82–1.65)
    ≥651.62 (1.06–2.48)2.17 (1.31–3.59)1.94 (1.29–2.91)
Female sex2.25 (1.67–3.04)0.85 (0.61–1.19)0.94 (0.71–1.25)
Regular use of NSAIDs1.19 (0.88–1.62)1.47 (1.03–2.12)1.34 (1.0–1.81)
Smoking status
    Current2.05 (1.31–3.23)2.59 (1.6–4.2)1.23 (0.79–1.91)
    Past0.85 (0.61–1.2)1.01 (0.67–1.51)0.93 (0.67–1.29)
BMI (kg/m2)
    25–29.91.94 (1.34–2.83)1.85 (1.22–2.83)1.46 (1.04–2.05)
    ≥305.36 (3.61–7.96)2.47 (1.58–3.85)1.91 (1.32–2.76)
Abdominal obesity
    Level 11.93 (1.10–3.39)1.56 (0.79–3.06)1.25 (0.76–2.04)
    Level 24.72 (2.91–7.65)3.14 (1.75–5.61)1.94 (1.27–2.96)
Physical activity (MET-min/d)
    2nd tertile 0.74 (0.5–1.09)0.71 (0.44–1.14)0.69 (0.47–1.01)
    3rd tertile 0.65 (0.43–0.99)1.09 (0.68–1.74)0.73 (0.49–1.09)
Daily energy intake (kcal)
    2nd tertile 1.06 (0.72–1.56)0.73 (0.45–1.17)0.80 (0.55–1.16)
    3rd tertile 1.45 (0.97–2.16)1.16 (0.74–1.81)1.02 (0.7–1.49)
Total daily fat intake (g)
    2nd tertile 1.01 (0.68–1.5)0.92 (0.57–1.48)0.86 (0.58–1.25)
    3rd tertile 1.48 (1.0–2.19)1.29 (0.82–2.04)1.24 (0.85–1.81)
  • * Adjusted for age (30–49, 50–64, or ≥65 y) and sex.

  • Defined based on waist circumference. In women, <80 (cm) defined as normal, 80 to 87.9 as action level 1, and ≥88 as action level 2 abdominal obesity. In men, <94 defined as normal, 94 to 101.9 as action level 1, and ≥102 as action level 2 abdominal obesity.

  • Tertiles are based on the distribution among controls.