Table 1.

Main characteristics of participants by study

Study
Hawaii studyUMN-1UMN-2
n (%)58399137
Males (%)50.449.555.5
Race/ethnicity (%)
    European American33.997.086.1
    Native Hawaiian32.800
    Japanese American33.300
    Other *03.013.9
Age (y)61 (57–66)46 (23–52)43 (23–32)
BMI (kg/m2)26.1 (23.2–30.0)27.7 (23.1–31.3)27.4 (23.5–32.1)
Cigarettes per day20.0 (16.7–28.0)25.0 (20.0–30.0)20.0 (15.0–25.0)
Smoking duration (y)43.0 (38.0–48.0)28.0 (22.0–35.0)24.0 (11.0–34.0)
Nicotine equivalents 57.9 (40.9–85.7)87.2 (51.7–127.8)60.0 (43.1–100.4)
Total NNAL 1.28 (0.83–1.87)2.05 (1.39–3.05)0.91 (0.58–1.29)
  • NOTE: Values are medians and interquartile ranges, unless otherwise indicated.

  • * African-American or Asian/Pacific Islander in the UMN studies.

  • Sum of nicotine, cotinine, 3-HC, and their respective glucuronides (in nmol/mg creatinine).

  • Sum of free NNAL and NNAL-Gluc (in pmol/mg creatinine). Four and one subjects had missing total NNAL in the Hawaii study and UMN-2 study, respectively.