Table 2.

ORs and 95% CIs for the risk of lung cancer by sex-specific tertiles of fresh red meat and processed meat in the EAGLE study

Tertile *Fresh red meat Processed meat
T1T2T3P trendT1T2T3P trend
Median, frequency per week (IQR)
    Female0.36 (0.36)1.4 (0.7)3.5 (1.7)1.5 (1.2)3.8 (1.5)7.7 (4.0)
    Male0.55 (0.48)1.7 (0.7)3.7 (1.8)1.9 (1.3)4.5 (1.5)9.0 (4.4)
All participants
    Cases/controls §539/779614/706719/587548/770604/710721/592
    Multivariate, OR (95% CI)1.0 (reference)1.3 (1.1–1.6)1.8 (1.5–2.2)<0.0011.0 (reference)1.3 (1.1–1.5)1.7 (1.4–2.1)<0.001
    Multivariable (+ red or processed meat intake)1.0 (reference)1.3 (1.1–1.5)1.7 (1.4–2.0)<0.0011.0 (reference)1.2 (1.0–1.5)1.5 (1.2–1.8)<0.001
    Multivariable (+ total fruit and vegetable intake)1.0 (reference)1.3 (1.1–1.6)1.9 (1.5–2.2)<0.0011.0 (reference)1.3 (1.1–1.6)1.8 (1.5–2.2)<0.001
  • Abbreviation: IQR, interquartile range.

  • * Sex-specific tertile, based on the distribution of the entire study population for each gender: T1 = first tertile; T2 = second tertile; T3 = third tertile.

  • Fresh red meat: summary measure of beef steak, hamburger, pork chops, and veal chop/cutlet.

  • Processed meat: summary measure of cooked ham (prosciutto cotto), smoked ham (prosciutto crudo), cured ham (speck), salami, baloney (mortadella), wurstel, salted sliced beef, coppa, pancetta, and other types of processed meats.

  • § Due to missing data, numbers may not add up to total cases (n = 1,903) or controls (n = 2,073).

  • Adjusted for age, gender, area of residence, education, BMI, alcohol, smoking intensity in pack-year per day (quartiles, distribution of controls; 0 for never smokers), duration of cigarettes smoking (continuous; 0 for never smokers), and years since last cigarettes (continuous; 0 for never and current smokers).