Table 4.

ORs and 95% CIs for the risk of lung cancer and sex-specific tertile of meat mutagens in the EAGLE study

Median, frequency/week (IQR)All participantsSmoking status
CurrentFormerNever
FemaleMaleCases/controlsOR (95% CI)Cases/controlsOR (95% CI)Cases/controlsOR (95% CI)Cases/controlsOR (95% CI)
PhIP (ng/d)
    T10 (2.3)0 (8.9)587/7401.0 (reference)276/1831.0 (reference)262/3271.0 (reference)45/2301.0 (reference)
    T236.4 (34.7)49.8 (36.6)618/7081.1 (0.9–1.4)326/1741.2 (0.9–1.6)250/3001.1 (0.8–1.4)37/2311.0 (0.6–1.6)
    T3176.7 (155.5)163.4 (118.0)698/6251.5 (1.2–1.8)331/1511.5 (1.1–2.0)316/2681.4 (1.0–1.8)49/2051.8 (1.0–3.0)
    P trend<0.0010.0130.030.04
DiMeIQx (ng/d)
    T10 (0)0 (0)666/6711.0 (reference)309/1531.0 (reference)293/2851.0 (reference)57/2321.0 (reference)
    T20.60 (0.61)0.70 (0.6)547/7670.68 (0.6–0.8)271/1950.64 (0.5–0.9)237/3440.70 (0.5–0.9)36/2260.8 (0.5–1.3)
    T33.10 (2.5)2.9 (2.7)690/6351.0 (0.8–1.2)353/1601.0 (1.7–1.4)298/2661.0 (0.8–1.3)38/2080.91 (0.5–1.5)
    P trend0.090.900.940.67
MeIQx (ng/d)
    T11.4 (2.4)1.7 (2.9)574/7521.0 (reference)270/1821.0 (reference)253/3261.0 (reference)47/2431.0 (reference)
    T29.1 (6.6)11.9 (7.0)609/7161.1 (0.9–1.3)296/1721.0 (0.76–1.4)271/3161.1 (0.84–1.4)37/2260.93 (0.56–1.6)
    T334.5 (29.8)36.1 (28.9)720/6051.4 (1.2–1.7)367/1541.4 (1.0–1.9)304/2531.4 (1.0–1.8)47/1971.5 (0.9–2.5)
    P trend<0.0010.040.030.13
BaP (ng/d)
    T10.2 (0.3)0.2 (0.4)651/6751.0 (reference)318/1701.0 (reference)283/2911.0 (reference)45/2141.0 (reference)
    T214.2 (21.8)18.9 (20.0)536/7890.8 (0.64–0.9)275/1970.8 (0.6–1.0)222/3440.7 (0.5–0.9)37/2461.0 (0.6–1.6)
    T385.4 (86.6)89.4 (74.0)716/6091.3 (1.1–1.6)340/1411.3 (1.0–1.8)323/2601.3 (1.0–1.7)49/2061.6 (1.0–2.7)
    P trend0.0030.070.090.07
Mutagenic activity (per 1,000 revertant colonies)
    T155.6 (304.4)177.4 (460.2)578/7481.0 (reference)278/1831.0 (reference)251/3261.0 (reference)45/2371.0 (reference)
    T21,426.5 (1129.2)1,738.9 (941.2)633/6921.2 (1.0–1.4)304/1651.0 (0.8–1.4)274/2931.2 (0.9–1.6)49/2341.3 (0.8–2.1)
    T35,956.4 (6150.1)5,617.0 (4965.4)692/6331.4 (1.1–1.7)351/1601.4 (1.0–1.9)303/2761.3 (1.0–1.8)37/1951.3 (0.8–2.2)
    P trend0.0010.030.050.3
  • NOTE: Sex-specific tertile, based on the distribution of the entire study population for each gender: T1 = first tertile; T2 = second tertile; T3 = third tertile. ORs: adjusted for age, gender, area of residence, education, BMI, alcohol, smoking intensity in pack-year per day (quartile, distribution of controls; 0 for never smokers), duration of cigarettes smoking (continuous; 0 for never smokers), and years since last cigarettes. Daily intake of meat mutagens estimated from beef steak, hamburger, pork chops, veal chop/cutlet, and chicken using mean EPIC portion size.