Table 2.

Incidence of common cancers by duration of cholesterol-lowering drug use, Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort, 1997—2007a

No reported useFormer useCurrent use, < 5 yCurrent use, ≥ 5 y
Cancer typeCases/ person-yearsRR (95% CI)Cases/ person-yearsRR (95% CI)Cases/ person-yearsRR (95% CI)Cases/ person-yearsRR (95% CI)
Prostateb3,089/252,5871.00 (ref)183/16,3860.95 (0.81–1.11)824/71,2850.98 (0.90–1.06)859/74,2271.02 (0.93–1.12)
 Non-advancedb2,765/252,5871.00 (ref)163/16,3860.94 (0.80–1.10)759/71,2850.99 (0.91–1.08)794/74,2271.04 (0.94–1.14)
 Advancedb,c324/252,5871.00 (ref)20/16,3861.05 (0.66–1.68)65/71,2850.81 (0.61–1.08)65/74,2270.86 (0.62–1.18)
Breastd2,082/378,6881.00 (ref)152/25,8241.07 (0.90–1.27)407/74,2710.98 (0.88–1.10)429/70,9431.11 (0.98–1.25)
Lung1,184/707,6021.00 (ref)98/47,8141.10 (0.89–1.37)304/164,7510.98 (0.85–1.12)340/165,9391.08 (0.93–1.25)
Colorectale1,120/694,7711.00 (ref)90/46,7421.09 (0.87–1.36)259/161,9230.93 (0.80–1.07)270/162,7100.96 (0.82–1.12)
Non-Hodgkin lymphomaf1,005/704,3281.00 (ref)59/47,5660.80 (0.61–1.05)225/164,3000.84 (0.72–0.98)215/165,6160.74 (0.62–0.89)
Melanoma840/694,6561.00 (ref)37/47,2380.64 (0.46–0.89)192/161,8080.89 (0.75–1.06)182/162,6050.79 (0.66–0.96)
Bladder633/705,8361.00 (ref)43/47,8050.87 (0.63–1.19)202/164,0811.10 (0.93–1.31)203/165,2290.98 (0.81–1.20)
Pancreas300/712,3001.00 (ref)27/48,2611.33 (0.88–2.01)93/166,0051.33 (1.03–1.72)75/167,4361.10 (0.81–1.49)
Endometriald327/245,3721.00 (ref)24/15,1901.17 (0.76–1.81)70/46,7581.11 (0.84–1.46)40/45,3910.65 (0.45–0.94)
Renal cell241/710,1841.00 (ref)15/48,0550.81 (0.47–1.38)72/165,3151.07 (0.80–1.42)68/166,6400.94 (0.68–1.31)
Any Cancerg10,264/555,8921.00 (ref)682/36,4420.98 (0.90–1.06)2,417/128,0740.95 (0.90–0.99)2,476/126,4680.97 (0.92–1.03)
  • aAdjusted for age, sex, race, education, smoking, BMI, physical activity level, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, hormone therapy, history of elevated cholesterol, heart disease, diabetes, and hypertension.

  • bMen only. Additionally adjusted for history of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing.

  • cAmerican Joint Committee on Cancer stage III or IV, or fatal prostate cancer with an unknown stage at diagnosis.

  • dWomen only. Breast cancer results additionally adjusted for history of mammography.

  • eAdditionally adjusted for history of colorectal endoscopy.

  • fNHL was defined as including multiple myeloma and lymphocytic leukemias as recommended by the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (reference 17). Excluding multiple myeloma and lymphocytic leukemias, the RR for long-term use of cholesterol-lowering drugs was 0.76 (95% CI 0.62–0.93).

  • gNot including non-melanoma skin cancer.