Table 2.

Intervention effects on inflammatory biomarkers

Control (N = 87)Exercise (N = 117)Diet (N = 118)Diet + exercise (N = 116)
Geometric means (95% CI)Geometric means (95% CI)PGeometric means (95% CI)PGeometric means (95% CI)P
Hs-CRP, mg/L
Baseline1.90 (1.50–2.40)2.48 (2.00–3.06)2.57 (2.08–3.18)2.15 (1.74–2.66)
12 mo2.06 (1.84–2.30)2.46 (2.23–2.72)1.78 (1.61–1.97)1.36 (1.23–1.50)
Δ12 mo vs. controlPc = 0.367Pc ≤ 0.001Pc ≤ 0.001
 Absolute change−0.19 (−0.60 to 0.22)PD ≤ 0.001−0.92 (−1.31 to −0.53)PE ≤ 0.001−0.87 (−1.23 to −0.51)PD = 0.353
 Percent change, %−8.5 (−24.7 to 11.1)PD+E ≤ 0.001−36.1 (−46.7 to −23.4)PD+E = 0.353−41.7 (−52.3 to −28.8)PE ≤ 0.001
SAA, mg/L
Baseline5.20 (4.42–6.11)5.17 (4.47–5.99)5.17 (4.46–5.99)4.77 (4.11–5.53)
12 mo5.21 (4.79–5.66)5.86 (5.43–6.31)4.27 (3.96–4.61)4.20 (3.89–4.53)
Δ12 mo vs. controlPc = 0.149Pc = 0.005Pc = 0.075
 Absolute change0.64 (−0.23 to 1.52)PD ≤ 0.001−0.82 (−1.47 to −0.17)PE ≤ 0.001−0.48 (−1.16 to 0.20)PD = 0.384
 Percent change, %12.9 (−4.3 to 33.2)PD+E = 0.006−17.5 (−27.9 to −5.6)PD+E = 0.384−12.2 (−23.8 to 1.3)PE = 0.006
IL-6, pg/mL
Baseline1.43 (1.25–1.64)1.47 (1.30–1.66)1.50 (1.33–1.70)1.38 (1.22–1.56)
12 mo1.60 (1.50–1.69)1.57 (1.48–1.65)1.29 (1.22–1.36)1.16 (1.10–1.23)
Δ12 mo vs. controlPc = 0.485Pc = 0.001Pc ≤ 0.001
 Absolute change−0.04 (−0.23 to 0.14)PD = 0.002−0.34 (−0.55 to −0.13)PE = 0.002−0.32 (−0.49 to −0.15)PD = 0.824
 Percent change, %−4.5 (−16.1 to 8.7)PD+E ≤ 0.001−23.1 (−33.9 to −10.5)PD+E = 0.824−24.3 (−33.2 to −14.1)PE ≤ 0.001
Leukocytes, ×109/L
Baseline5.39 (5.10–5.71)5.54 (5.26–5.83)5.67 (5.39–5.97)5.54 (5.27–5.84)
12 mo5.36 (5.12–5.50)5.47 (5.34–5.60)5.34 (5.22–5.47)5.12 (5.00–5.24)
Δ12 mo vs. controlPc = 0.740Pc = 0.019Pc = 0.001
 Absolute change−0.02 (−0.27 to 0.24)PD = 0.023−0.30 (−0.55 to −0.04)PE = 0.023−0.41 (−0.65 to −0.16)PD = 0.369
 Percent change, %−0.8 (−5.1 to 3.8)PD+E = 0.003−5.3 (−9.5 to −0.9)PD+E = 0.369−7.2 (−11.2 to −3.0)PE = 0.003
Neutrophils, ×109/L
Baseline2.97 (2.76–3.20)3.10 (2.90–3.31)3.20 (3.00–3.42)3.11 (2.91–3.33)
12 mo3.02 (2.92–3.13)3.13 (3.03–3.23)2.94 (2.85–3.04)2.88 (2.80–2.97)
Δ12 mo vs. controlPc = 0.796Pc = 0.006Pc = 0.005
 Absolute change0.00 (−0.21 to 0.20)PD = 0.002−0.31 (−0.54 to −0.09)PE = 0.002−0.30 (−0.50 to −0.09)PD = 0.821
 Percent change, %−0.9 (−7.1 to 5.8)PD+E = 0.003−9.6 (−15.9 to −2.9)PD+E = 0.821−9.0 (−14.8 to −2.8)PE = 0.003

NOTE: P < 0.008 is considered significant due to multiple comparisons (Bonferroni correction): (i) exercise versus control, (ii) diet versus control, (iii) diet + exercise versus control, (iv) exercise versus diet, (v) exercise versus diet + exercise, and (vi) diet versus diet + exercise. All models were adjusted for randomization strata [i.e., baseline BMI (<30, ≥30 kg/m2) and race/ethnicity (white, black, and others)] and age.

Abbreviations: PC, P values for comparing the 12-month changes versus control group; PD, P values for comparing the 12-month changes versus diet group; PD+E, P values for comparing the 12-month changes versus diet + exercise group; PE, P values for comparing the 12-month changes versus exercise group.