Table 5.

Twelve-month changes in inflammatory biomarkers stratified by diet intervention adherence

DietDiet + exercise
12-mo changes vs. control12-mo changes vs. control
NAbsolutePercentPNAbsolutePercentP
Percent session attended
Hs-CRP, mg/L
 Attended < 84.3%41−0.17−8.80.46233−0.59−27.40.056
 84.3% ≤ attended < 106%37−1.30−43.9<0.00143−0.95−44.9<0.001
 Attended ≥ 106%40−1.22−49.4<0.00141−0.93−47.3<0.001
SAA, mg/L
 Attended < 84.3%410.11−0.70.94133−0.07−6.00.592
 84.3% ≤ attended < 106%37−0.87−17.70.01843−0.64−13.70.160
 Attended ≥ 106%40−1.57−30.8<0.00141−0.68−14.40.141
IL-6, pg/mL
 Attended < 84.3%41−0.12−8.40.41433−0.22−15.50.049
 84.3% ≤ attended < 106%37−0.38−24.60.00643−0.36−25.70.003
 Attended ≥ 106%40−0.48−33.3<0.00141−0.36−28.9<0.001
Leukocytes, ×109/L
 Attended < 84.3%41−0.20−4.10.16533−0.27−5.20.168
 84.3% ≤ attended < 106%37−0.32−5.10.05743−0.50−8.20.004
 Attended ≥ 106%40−0.37−6.20.06341−0.42−7.20.008
Neutrophils, ×109/L
 Attended < 84.3%41−0.23−8.30.07333−0.22−7.30.132
 84.3% ≤ attended < 106%37−0.32−8.90.04543−0.37−10.00.019
 Attended ≥ 106%40−0.39−11.00.02941−0.28−8.20.043
Change in percent calorie intake from fata
Hs-CRP, mg/L
 Reduced ≤ 4.32%35−0.70−27.10.01031−0.67−26.80.017
 4.32% < reduced ≤ 10.08%33−0.91−35.9<0.00132−0.74−38.5<0.001
 Reduced > 10.08%33−1.48−51.9<0.00135−1.36−51.6<0.001
SAA, mg/L
 Reduced ≤ 4.32%35−0.92−20.00.03631−0.21−6.60.431
 4.32% < reduced ≤ 10.08%33−0.68−12.10.14532−0.92−16.10.062
 Reduced > 10.08%33−1.18−27.6<0.00135−0.58−13.50.303
IL-6, pg/mL
 Reduced ≤ 4.32%35−0.45−25.50.00931−0.30−19.90.006
 4.32% < reduced ≤ 10.08%33−0.30−20.70.01232−0.25−18.70.020
 Reduced > 10.08%33−0.40−26.0<0.00135−0.42−26.00.005
Leukocytes, ×109/L
 Reduced ≤ 4.32%35−0.26−4.70.13431−0.38−5.70.078
 4.32% < reduced ≤ 10.08%33−0.50−7.50.01132−0.30−3.50.269
 Reduced > 10.08%33−0.30−4.80.09535−0.57−8.30.010
Neutrophils, ×109/L
 Reduced ≤ 4.32%35−0.30−8.70.05531−0.31−8.80.055
 4.32% < reduced ≤ 10.08%33−0.46−11.30.01432−0.27−5.70.204
 Reduced > 10.08%33−0.30−7.80.07735−0.38−9.30.043

NOTE: P values testing differences in changes from baseline to 12 months in inflammatory biomarkers compared with controls. All models were adjusted for randomization strata [i.e., baseline BMI (<30, ≥30 kg/m2) and race/ethnicity (white, black, and others)] and age.

  • aParticipants with data on percentage of calorie intake from fat at both baseline and 12 months were included in the analysis. (N = 101 for diet group, N = 98 for diet + exercise group).