Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of study participants

Control (N = 87)Exercise (N = 117)Diet (N = 118)Diet + exercise (N = 116)
Age, mean (SD), y57.4 (4.4)58.1 (5.0)58.1 (5.9)58.0 (4.4)
Ethnicity, n (%)
Non-Hispanic white74 (85.1)98 (83.8)101 (85.6)99 (85.3)
Non-Hispanic black6 (6.9)15 (12.8)9 (7.6)5 (4.3)
Hispanic3 (3.5)2 (1.7)2 (1.7)5 (4.3)
Other (American Indian, Asian, or unknown)4 (4.6)2 (1.7)6 (5.1)7 (6.0)
College degree, n (%)59 (67.8)70 (59.8)76 (64.4)81 (69.8)
Married or have partner, n (%)59 (67.8)71 (60.7)79 (67.0)69 (60.0)
Ever smoked,a n (%)32 (36.8)47 (40.2)55 (46.6)47 (40.5)
Statin users, n (%)19 (21.8)19 (16.2)10 (8.5)25 (21.6)
NSAID users, n (%)26 (29.9)36 (30.8)51 (43.2)44 (37.9)
BMI, mean (SD), kg/m230.7 (3.9)30.7 (3.7)31.1 (3.9)31.0 (4.3)
Waist circumference, mean (SD), cm94.8 (10.2)95.1 (10.1)94.6 (10.2)93.7 (9.9)
Aerobic fitness, mean (SD), mL/kg/min23.1 (4.1)22.5 (4.1)22.7 (3.8)23.6 (4.1)
Physical activity, mean (SD), min/wk23.8 (41.2)37.7 (43.7)33.6 (45.5)33.6 (44.7)
Calorie intake, mean (SD), kcal/d1,988 (669)1,986 (589)1,884 (661)1,890 (638)
Percent calorie intake from fat (%), mean (SD)35.6 (6.9)33.6 (6.9)33.1 (6.3)35.3 (7.3)
Insulin, mean (SD), pmol/L93.20 (44.80)86.95 (55.84)91.26 (60.56)87.23 (59.80)
Fasting glucose, mean (SD), mmol/L5.38 (0.46)5.32 (0.45)5.37 (0.48)5.33 (0.43)
HOMA-IR, mean (SD)3.22 (1.65)2.99 (2.19)3.17 (2.25)3.01 (2.22)
Inflammatory biomarkers
Hs-CRP, mg/L
 Mean (SD)3.22 (3.53)3.84 (3.90)4.01 (4.05)3.10 (2.65)
 Median2.202.402.802.40
 Interquartile range (Q1–Q3)0.90–3.601.40–4.601.50–4.91.15–4.40
Serum amyloid A, mg/L
 Mean (SD)6.73 (5.81)6.75 (5.47)6.70 (5.36)5.93 (4.02)
 Median4.804.704.804.90
 Interquartile range (Q1–Q3)3.40–8.403.40–8.403.20–9.103.05–7.15
IL-6, pg/L
 Mean (SD)1.69 (1.22)1.93 (2.06)1.87 (1.77)1.53 (0.82)
 Median1.431.381.441.39
 Interquartile range (Q1–Q3)0.98–1.991.00–2.000.96–2.260.94–1.81
Leukocytes (×109/L)
 Mean (SD)5.70 (1.31)5.84 (1.33)6.02 (1.47)5.84 (1.22)
 Median5.705.805.855.75
 Interquartile range (Q1–Q3)4.70–6.304.90–6.705.00–6.804.95–6.50
Neutrophils (×109/L)
 Mean (SD)3.26 (0.95)3.40 (1.08)3.54 (1.13)3.41 (0.91)
 Median3.203.253.373.33
 Inter-quartile range (Q1–Q3)2.56–3.822.65–4.012.80–3.892.73–3.84
  • aAll study participants were currently nonsmokers.