Table 2.

The impact of demographic factors on the single biomarker

Demographic factorsControlDiminutive adenomaNondiminutive/nonadvanced adenomaAdvanced adenomaLynch syndrome or HNPCCCancerEffect on rectal Ld, ANCOVA P
Age (mean ± SD), y55 ± 965 ± 1358 ± 1065 ± 1343 ± 1266 ± 130.54
Gender (% male)4964734242360.20
Smoking (% smokers)12033825140.57
Drinking (% alcoholic)7064735867570.99

NOTE: Demographic characteristics such as age, gender, smoking, and drinking history is shown for different patient groups and their effect on Ld. The P value is calculated using the ANCOVA in Stata. It is evident that Ld is not confounded by age (P = 0.54), gender (P = 0.20), smoking (P = 0.57), and drinking history (P = 0.99).