Table 2.

Survival benefits from the FDA-approved nanomedicines to date

Generic drugTrade name(s)IndicationBenefit
PEGylated liposomal doxorubicinDoxil and CaelyxHIV-related Kaposi's sarcomaNo statistically significant change in overall survival (23 wks) vs. doxorubicin, bleomycin, and vincristine treatment (22.3 wks) for HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma
Metastatic ovarian cancerStatistically significant overall survival improvement (108 wks, P = 0.008) vs. topotecan treatment (71.1 wks) for platinum-sensitive patients with ovarian cancer
Metastatic breast cancerNo statistically significant overall survival change (84 wks) vs. conventional doxorubicin (88 wks) for patients with breast cancer receiving first-line therapy
Liposomal daunorubicinDaunoXomeHIV-related Kaposi's sarcomaNo statistically significant overall survival change (52.7 wks) vs. doxorubicin, bleomycin, vincristine treatment (48.9 wks)
Poly (styren-co-maleic acid)–conjugated naocarzinostatinSMANCSLiver cancer, renal cancerApproved in 1993 in Japan. Far more effective when the EPR is enhanced by increasing the blood pressure in difficult-to-treat tumors, including metastatic liver cancer, cancers of pancreas, gall bladder, etc.
Liver cancer: 5-year survival (%)**
Metastasis1 seg.+>2 seg.
Child A>90%>50%
Child B40%30%
Five-year survival (%) based on the liver function (cirrhosis) by child classification and intrahepatic+ metastasis within one segment or more
Albumin-bound paclitaxelAbraxaneMetastatic breast cancerStatistically significant overall survival change (56.4 wks, P = 0.024) vs. polyethoxylated castor oil–based paclitaxel treatment (46.7 wks) for patients receiving second-line treatment

NOTE: The polymeric platform methoxy PEG-poly(d,l-lactide) taxol with the trade name Genexol-PM (Sanayang Co.) has been approved in Korea for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Adapted from the work of Jain and Stylianopoulos (16).

**, SMANCS data in the table were provided by H. Maeda.