Table 1.

RSKs show isoform- and cancer-specific functions that regulate tumor cell motility

TissueCell lineRSK isoformEffects on migrationProposed mechanismReference
BladderT24RSK1+Phosphorylation of SH3P2 blocks protein's negative effects on cell motility.Tanimura and colleagues (27)
BreastMCF10ARSK1, RSK2+Drives ERK-mediated motility through activation of FRA1 and c-jun–dependent transcription to induce EMT.Doehn and colleagues (7)
BreastMCF10ANot specified+Not specifiedSmolen and colleagues (6)
BreastMDA-MB-231RSK4Negative regulation of prometastatic factors CXCR4 and CLDN2.Thakur and colleagues (8)
CervixHeLa S3RSK1+Phosphorylation of SH3P2 blocks protein's negative effects on cell motility.Tanimura and colleagues (27)
CervixHeLaRSK2+Phosphorylation of FLNa increases binding and inactivation of integrins.Gawecka and colleagues (14)
CNSIMR32RSK2+RSK2 is the mediator of ERK-mediated cell motility regulated by PEA15.Gawecka and colleagues (26)
ColonLIM 1863RSK1, RSK2+Drives ERK-mediated motility through activation of FRA1 and c-jun–dependent transcription to induce EMT.Doehn and colleagues (7)
Connective tissueHT-1080Not specified+Phosphorylation of proton-exchanger NHE-1 under hypoxic conditions leading to ECM degradation due to extracellular acidification.Lucien and colleagues (3)
Head and neck212LN, 37A, 37B, 686LN, M4e, Tu212RSK2+Induction of CREB-dependent transcription of prometastatic genes. Hsp27 and FAK activation regulates actin filaments and focal adhesions.Kang and colleagues (4)
Kidney786-0, RCC10RSK1, RSK2+Drives ERK-mediated motility through activation of FRA1 and c-jun–dependent transcription to induce EMT.Doehn and colleagues (7)
LungA549RSK2, RSK4+Not specifiedLara and colleagues (5)
LungA549, H23, NME35RSK1VASP phosphorylation impairs protein's function in regulating actin dynamics.Lara and colleagues (5)
PancreasL3.6plRSK2+RON signaling induces RSK2 activity to start cellular EMT program.Ma and colleagues (9)
ProstatePC3RSK1, RSK2+Drives ERK-mediated motility through activation of FRA1 and c-jun–dependent transcription to induce EMT.Doehn and colleagues (7)
ProstateDU-145RSK2+Phosphorylation of FLNa increases binding and inactivation of integrins.Gawecka and colleagues (14)
SkinA-431Not specified+Phosphorylation of FLNa increases binding and inactivation of integrins.Vial and colleagues (15)
StomachMKN1RSK1+Phosphorylation of SH3P2 blocks protein's negative effects on cell motility.Tanimura and colleagues (27)

NOTE: Effects on cell migration are shown as increased migration (+) and decreased migration (−).