Table 1.

Summary of how various immunotherapeutic strategies impact on immune tolerance

Immunotherapeutic strategyImmune editingAntigen release and uptake by DCsAntigen processingAntigen presentationImmune effector expansionImmune Effector maintenance
Tumor-specific mAbsBPBPBPBP+
Adoptive T-cell Transfer including CARsBPBPBPBP+
Whole-cell vaccines+
Vaccination with protein antigen+
Vaccination with peptideBP+
Vaccination with antigen-pulsed DCsBPBP+
Enhancing T-cell activation++
Checkpoint blockade+
In situ immunization and combination therapies+++++

NOTE: Therapeutic approaches to cancer therapy are designed to either bypass immune editing (central tolerance) or address mechanisms that contribute to peripheral tolerance (outlined in Fig. 1).

Abbreviations: BP, bypassed by this approach to cancer immunotherapy; +, focus of this approach to cancer immunotherapy.