Table 1.

Participant characteristics by study and case–control statusa

Study (year)Case–control statusNumberAge at recruitment (y)BMI (kg/m2)Married or cohabiting (%)Higher education (%)Current smokers (%)Intake of alcohol (g/d)Family history of prostate cancer (%)
Prospective studies
 ATBC (2003)Case10058.9 (4.6)26.5 (4.5)83.05.0100.017.1 (23.9)7.5
Control31158.0 (4.5)26.5 (3.9)81.45.5100.017.2 (19.6)4.2
 BLSA (2000)Case7264.4 (8.9)25.5 (3.0)94.863.95.6N/AN/A
Control11164.7 (9.4)26.4 (3.7)83.557.77.2N/AN/A
 BUPA (2006)Case14054.5 (6.2)25.0 (2.4)N/AN/A15.021.0 (16.9)N/A
Control41954.6 (6.2)25.4 (2.9)N/AN/A18.919.2 (16.7)N/A
 CHS (2005)Case17472.5 (4.4)26.8 (3.5)87.417.38.6N/AN/A
Control17472.4 (4.4)26.7 (4.1)83.314.513.8N/AN/A
 CLUE 1 (2001)Case3058.5 (9.1)N/A93.316.716.7N/AN/A
Control6058.4 (8.9)N/A90.01.726.7N/AN/A
 EPIC Phase I (2007)Case63060.9 (6.2)26.7 (3.5)87.525.423.520.7 (24.5)N/A
Control63060.9 (6.2)27.1 (3.6)89.223.127.820.5 (23.9)N/A
 EPIC Phase II (2012)Case1,10758.6 (6.2)26.5 (3.4)88.425.722.820.1 (24.1)N/A
Control1,10758.6 (6.2)26.8 (3.6)88.424.524.819.5 (21.3)N/A
 ERSPC (2004)Case19761.8 (4.4)N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A18.7
Control19761.8 (4.4)N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A16.2
 HPFS Phase I (2005)Case68265.3 (7.4)25.9 (3.6)93.4100.04.811.9 (14.7)14.2
Control68265.1 (7.4)26.0 (3.5)93.0100.03.911.4 (15.0)10.3
 HPFS Phase II (2010)Case62962.0 (7.8)25.9 (3.2)91.7100.03.812.4 (16.3)14.8
Control62962.0 (7.8)26.1 (3.6)93.0100.03.012.2 (16.8)10.8
 JACC (2010)Case3968.9 (6.1)22.3 (2.6)100.010.050.017.0 (19.2)2.6
Control9868.2 (5.5)22.4 (2.7)91.92.737.513.7 (17.5)0.0
 KPMCP (1998)Case4571.5 (5.1)25.7 (2.5)86.87.520.018.7 (30.3)N/A
Control21871.9 (4.5)25.8 (3.1)82.85.417.814.9 (22.9)N/A
 MCCS (2006)Case55460.9 (6.4)27.2 (3.5)80.222.09.619.0 (24.4)N/A
Control1,04858.3 (7.2)27.2 (3.7)81.022.213.221.0 (25.8)N/A
 MEC (2010)Case38668.7 (7.1)26.7 (4.1)78.133.214.423.0 (42.6)14.0
Control76968.5 (7.2)26.9 (4.1)78.932.011.921.5 (37.9)8.3
 NSHDC (2000, 2004)Case28158.0 (4.5)26.1 (2.8)86.613.418.87.6 (6.0)N/A
Control56958.0 (4.4)26.6 (3.7)80.112.321.27.5 (6.0)N/A
 PCPT (2013)Case1,03263.3 (5.5)27.4 (4.2)87.338.46.89.7 (16.1)21.0
Control1,03263.3 (5.5)27.6 (4.0)87.836.97.68.9 (13.7)20.9
 PHS (1998, 2002, 2010)Case75658.6 (8.1)24.7 (2.5)N/A100.09.17.1 (6.2)N/A
Control75658.4 (8.0)24.7 (2.5)N/A100.08.97.2 (6.3)N/A
 PLCO (2007)Case72865.1 (4.8)27.1 (3.6)87.143.76.916.6 (30.8)10.8
Control88664.9 (4.7)27.4 (2.5)86.742.28.816.2 (29.3)6.1
 SU.VI.MAX (2005)Case10055.1 (4.6)25.7 (3.1)93.935.413.325.2 (20.7)13.8
Control40055.0 (4.6)25.4 (2.9)87.235.213.228.1 (20.1)5.2
Cross-sectional studies
 ProtecT-Feasibility phase (2004)Case28261.6 (4.9)26.5 (3.1)N/AN/A9.921.6 (21.9)6.6
Control77461.6 (5.1)26.5 (3.6)N/AN/A10.823.5 (23.8)4.0
 ProtecT (2012)Case2,59061.8 (5.1)26.9 (3.5)N/AN/A13.724.0 (25.3)8.4
Control2,74861.6 (5.1)26.9 (3.7)N/AN/A13.924.3 (24.9)5.2
  • Abbreviations: CLUE, Campaign Against Cancer and Stroke (“Give Us a Clue to Cancer”) Study; N/A, data not available for this study.

  • aValues are mean (SD) unless otherwise indicated; percentages exclude men with missing values. Numbers are for men with an IGF1 measurement and in completed matched case–control sets for analysis.