Table 3.

Adolescent and early adulthood inflammatory dietary patterna and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor status, NHS II, 1989–2011

Quintile of intake
12345PtrendbPheterogeneityc
Adolescent inflammatory pattern
 Premenopausal cases0.47
  ER+/PR+, No. of cases10094117102105
  Multivariable modeld1.000.95 (0.71–1.27)1.22 (0.93–1.61)1.19 (0.88–1.59)1.34 (0.97–1.84)0.04
  ER−/PR−, No. of cases2825243932
  Multivariable modeld1.000.89 (0.51–1.54)0.85 (0.49–1.49)1.41 (0.84–2.37)1.22 (0.67–2.19)0.24
 Postmenopausal cases0.77
  ER+/PR+, No. of cases6266554953
  Multivariable modeld1.001.06 (0.74–1.52)0.94 (0.64–1.37)0.86 (0.58–1.28)1.01 (0.66–1.55)0.75
  ER−/PR−, No. of cases151620199
  Multivariable modeld1.000.99 (0.48–2.04)1.16 (0.57–2.37)0.97 (0.46–2.06)0.49 (0.19–1.24)0.18
Early adulthood inflammatory pattern
 Premenopausal cases0.27
  ER+/PR+, No. of cases10110110586100
  Multivariable modeld1.001.07 (0.81–1.42)1.16 (0.87–1.53)1.03 (0.76–1.38)1.48 (1.09–1.99)0.03
  ER−/PR−, No. of cases2421362532
  Multivariable modeld1.000.91 (0.50–1.64)1.75 (1.03–2.97)1.26 (0.70–2.25)1.81 (1.02–3.22)0.03
 Postmenopausal cases0.35
  ER+/PR+, No. of cases7356535835
  Multivariable modeld1.000.87 (0.61–1.24)0.95 (0.66–1.37)1.13 (0.78–1.62)0.83 (0.54–1.27)0.78
  ER−/PR−, No. of cases221420128
  Multivariable modeld1.000.74 (0.36–1.49)1.07 (0.56–2.04)0.72 (0.34–1.51)0.44 (0.18–1.08)0.11
Average of adolescent and early adult inflammatory pattern
 Premenopausal cases0.06
  ER+/PR+, No. of cases9310110788104
  Multivariable modeld1.001.14 (0.85–1.52)1.25 (0.93–1.66)1.08 (0.79–1.48)1.55 (1.12–2.13)0.02
  ER−/PR−, No. of cases1927223436
  Multivariable modeld1.001.47 (0.81–2.67)1.25 (0.66–2.35)1.92 (1.06–3.48)2.21 (1.17–4.16)0.009
 Postmenopausal cases0.94
  ER+/PR+, No. of cases7356535835
  Multivariable modeld1.001.10 (0.76–1.60)1.32 (0.91–1.91)0.93 (0.61–1.40)1.13 (0.72–1.76)0.80
  ER−/PR−, No. of cases221420128
  Multivariable modeld1.001.67 (0.82–3.40)1.07 (0.50–2.29)0.90 (0.40–2.06)0.93 (0.39–2.24)0.48
  • aThe inflammatory pattern is characterized by higher intake of sugar-sweetened and diet soft drinks, refined grains, red and processed meat, margarine, corn, other vegetables, and fish and lower intake of green leafy vegetables, yellow vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and coffee.

  • bTrend based on median values of each quintile.

  • cUsing a likelihood ratio test, a model with separate HRs for each hormone receptor subtype was compared to a model with a common HR.

  • dAdjusted for age (continuous), total calories in adolescence (continuous), height at age 18 (continuous), age at menarche (<11, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15+), BMI at age 18 (continuous), physical activity in adolescence (<21, 21–35, 36–53, 54–80, 81+ metabolic equivalent tasks/week), family history of breast cancer (yes, no), age at first birth (<25, 25–30, 31+ years), parity (nulliparous, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4+), oral contraceptive use (never use, past use <5 years, past use 5+ years, current use <5 years, current use 5–9 years, current use 10+ years), physical activity in adulthood (<3, 3–8, 9–17, 18–26, 27–41, 42+ metabolic equivalent tasks/week), alcohol consumption (non-drinker, <7.5, 7.5–15, 15–29, 30+ grams/day), weight change since age 18 (continuous), and history of benign breast disease (yes, no). In the analyses including postmenopausal women, we additionally adjusted for hormone replacement therapy use (premenopausal, postmenopausal never users, postmenopausal past users, postmenopausal current users) and menopausal status/age at menopause (premenopausal, unknown menopause, <45, 45–46, 47–48, 49–50, 51–52, 53+ years).