Table 3.

Association of CTC clusters and clinical outcomes in cancer patients

Association between
Features of CTC clustersClinical outcomesCancer type [Detection method]
Presence and higher number of CTC clusters at baselineShorter PFS and/or OSLung cancer (3) [CellSearch]
Breast cancer (55, 56) [CellSearch]
Melanoma (54) [ISET]
Gastric cancer (58) [ISET]
Colorectal cancer (57) [ISET]
Liver cancer (60) [ISET]
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (59) [Microfluidics-CMx]
Platinum resistanceOvarian cancer (61) [Microfluidics-EC]
Persistence of CTC clusters after treatment initiationShorter PFS and/or OSBreast cancer (30, 56) [CellSearch]
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (62) [ISET]
Bigger CTC cluster size (≥3 cells per cluster)Shorter OSBreast cancer (56) [CellSearch]
  • Abbreviations: CMx, biomimetic supported lipid bilayer surface-coated microfluidic chip conjugated with anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) antibodies; EC, electrically conductive chip incorporating a nanoroughened microfluidic platform utilizing microchannels conjugated with streptavidin and then exposed to biotinylated antibodies against EpCAM, TROP-2, EGFR, vimentin, and N-cadherin; ISET, isolation by size of tumor cell method.